It was a historic night at the Oscars for “Parasite.” Yet while “Parasite” walked away with four awards including Best Picture, none of the actors were recognized in bringing the film to life.
Christina Chin, assistant professor of sociology is co-author of the study “Tokens on the Small Screen” about how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders remain underrepresented in Hollywood.
According to Chin, “it was exciting to see the movie walk away with four awards including Best Director, Best Foreign Language Film, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Picture. May this be a hopeful sign that the Hollywood industry will greenlight more projects that give Asian and Asian American artists additional opportunities to share their creative vision, perspective, and experiences.”
Rutgers scholar Jae Won Chung, an expert in Korean cinema, is available to discuss Parasite’s historic win at the Academy Awards, and the continued need for diversity in Hollywood.
“This historic moment is a win-win for the American and South Korean film industries. It reinforces Hollywood’s self-congratulatory myth that it embraces diversity and inclusivity. Meanwhile, South Korea gets the flash of international recognition it craves. Alert filmmakers, critics and fans across the world no doubt appreciate the irony that Bong Joon-ho’s filmography has had a strong anti-establishment orientation since his 2000 directorial debut. His films offer a satirical barb often directed against the U.S. empire. And in a year with only one black nominee and zero recognition for women directors, Parasite’s win ensured that the media would focus on the Academy’s evolution,” Chung said.
Chung, an assistant professor of Korean studies at Rutgers–New Brunswick, is an expert in Korean cinema and visual culture, and modern and contemporary Korean literature.
Imperceptible variations in movement patterns among individuals with autism spectrum disorder are important indicators of the severity of the disorder in children and adults, according to a report presented at the 2014 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in November.
For the first time, researchers at Indiana University and Rutgers University report developing a quantitative way to assess these otherwise ignored variations in movement and link those variations to a diagnosis.
“This is the first time we have been able to explicitly characterize subtypes of severity in autism spectrum disorder,” said Jorge V. José, Ph.D., vice president of research at Indiana University and the James H. Rudy Professor of Physics in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences. “We also have determined that a pattern exists in the movement variations in some cases between children with autism and their parents, leading us to surmise that genetics plays a role in movement patterns.”
In a blinded study, José, who also is a professor of cellular and integrative physiology at the IU School of Medicine, and co-principal investigator Elizabeth B. Torres, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University, attached high-sensitivity movement sensors to the arms of study participants to track their micro-movements as they extended and retracted their hand to touch a specific spot on a touch screen.
Using analytics they developed, Drs. José and Torres, together with Di Wu, a Ph.D. graduate student in José’s lab in the physics department at IU Bloomington, evaluated the local spikes in speed — traditionally considered as noise in the data. The sensors recorded 240 movements per second for the 30 people with autism, eight healthy adults and 21 parents of children with autism tested. The participants were asked to touch a spot on a screen moving continuously about 100 consecutive times.
“These variations in the hand’s movement speed produced a pattern that clustered in specific regions of a graph that produced metrics we could use — not only in children with autism but in their parents,” Dr. Torres said. “People with autism are known to have problems with sensing their body motions and sensing their body in general. Our earlier research proved that the random patterns of their speed were significant. What we did not expect was to find random, minute speed fluctuations during the intentional action itself, much less identify this form of intentional tremor in some of their parents.”
That finding was part of the report presented by Wu at the 2014 Society for Neuroscience meeting in November attended by more than 32,000 scientists.
“In healthy adults, the minute fluctuations in the speed of their movements, which we call peripheral spikes or p-spikes, normally occur at the onset or at the end of the arm extension exercise,” Wu said. “They show very few p-spikes during the actual action, as the hand speeds up or slows down en route to the target. However, healthy children in the 3-to-5-year-old range have random patterns of p-spikes, as do adults and children with autism spectrum disorder.”
What this suggests, the researchers said, is that p-spikes normally become more organized with age in typically developing individuals. But, in children and adults with autism, the p-spikes remained random. The researchers tested people with autism between the ages of 3 and 30 and identified an absence of transition that typically developing children undergo after 4 or 5 years of age.
The researchers also tested 14 mothers and seven fathers who have a child with autism. When evaluating the noise from the data produced from the parents, the researchers were surprised to find that some of the parents had random p-spikes clustering in the graph similar to that of their children.
“This finding suggests that genetics may play a role in p-spike patterns,” Wu said. “We will need to further explore this result in other populations with neurodevelopmental disorders of known genetic origins and their family to better understand the surprising findings.”
Drs. José and Torres said the p-spike patterns are useful in determining severity of the disorder.
“Normally, children get more coordinated as they age, but we found that the young children with autism and the adults with autism all produced random p-spikes showing that they do not transition as they develop,” Dr. José said. “We also found a correlation between the randomness of the p-spikes and the severity of the autism disorder. Among those with autism, the more random their p-spikes, the lower spoken language ability they had overall.”
This research was funded by National Science Foundation Cyber-Enabled Discovery and Innovation Type I (Idea), grant number 0941587 — “A novel quantitative framework to study lack of social interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorders” — and by the New Jersey Governor’s Council for Medical Research and Treatment of Autism, grant number CAUT14APL018 — “New objective autism inventory to quantify peripheral plasticity during standard ADOS-2 social exchange.”
Erica Armstrong Dunbar enlists students’ help to tell untold stories of the “bravest woman that ever lived”
In an iconic image, Harriet Tubman stands calmly wrapped in a shawl. But the picture that most people associate with Tubman doesn’t scratch the surface of the strength and determination it took leading 60 to 70 slaves to safety through the Underground Railroad.
With the release of the film Harriet, Rutgers scholar Erica Armstrong Dunbar said it’s a good time to shed light on Tubman’s life not only as the famed Underground Railroad conductor, but as a sister, a daughter, a wife, a mother and a woman.
“What we know about Tubman’s life from history books really only consists of 10 years of her life, and I wanted to present her in a way that is fresh,’ said Dunbar, a Rutgers University–New Brunswick Charles and Mary Beard Professor of History and the author of She Came to Slay: The Life and Times of Harriet Tubman. “The point was to be accessible and have it be modern and contemporary, so it connects to readers across generations to make a story that is over 100 years old feel relevant today.”
Dunbar began with Tubman’s grandmother, a woman named Modesty, who endured the Middle Passage and arrived in colonial Maryland in the late eighteenth century. Tubman’s parents, Harriet “Rit” Green and Ben Ross were enslaved by different families on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Tubman was born with the name Araminta Ross, and her family was separated as many others were during the slave trade, with her three sisters sold to different plantation owners.
“I wanted to start at the very beginning and talk about the things we don’t often hear,” Dunbar said. “I explore her teenage years and her marriage to John Tubman, who actually left her for another woman once she escaped to Philadelphia. I discuss her adopted child Gertie through her second marriage to Nelson Davis, a man 20 years her junior. A decade later, Tubman led a military expedition during the Civil War and rescued close to 750 enslaved people. After the war ended, she continued to fight for 53 years as an activist for the elderly and women’s rights. It’s important that we see all these different sides, so we can begin to look at her as a whole person.”
To offer this perspective, Dunbar enlisted research associates from various universities, including Rutgers–New Brunswick’s Ashley Council, a second-year graduate student focused on African-American history. Council spent months digging through the Freedmen’s Bureau Archives, 19th century newspapers, census data, civil war letters, black abolitionist papers, speeches and many other historical sources. She faced the complex task of uncovering slave history, much of it told through the lens of white supremacy.
“I researched portions of Tubman’s history like the Combahee River Raid, and I started constructing narratives that challenged me to write in a more accessible way, to touch on the humanity of the reader,” said Council, who plans to become a professor of African-American history. “There is not a lot of archival material about Tubman and the history of the enslaved . Archives weren’t made to make the enslaved visible. So, I had to take history based in white supremacy and find the narratives that were hidden beneath. It isn’t something our discipline always allows and this was an amazing opportunity to be a part of a new way of telling her story.”
Dunbar was invited to attend pre-screenings of the film Harriet, which she invited her graduate student associates to join. Students also discussed Tubman’s life in conjunction with the film release during live podcasts and Twitter chats. While there are some differences between her book and the film, there were moments that shed light on the militant side of Tubman, which Dunbar was happy to see on screen.
“She was a fierce black woman — and certainly one of the bravest women that ever lived,” Dunbar said. “She made 13 trips along the Underground Railroad, traveling more than 100 miles and never lost one single person. She reminds us of the importance of the strength of leadership in the darkest of times and to stand up for social injustice. Her story offers hope and encouragement in battling the issues happening today.”
Dunbar said it was important to involve students in her research.
“I want students to have the opportunity to work in the archives and uncover the fragments of history that are untold. It helps them see possibilities in the field of history and the prominence of the Department of History at Rutgers. We are the number one program in African American history in the nation for a reason.”
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Museum staff are trained to help visitors have a rewarding experience
New Brunswick, N.J. (Dec. 16, 2019) – The Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University-New Brunswick is the first art museum in New Jersey to offer specialized tools to help visitors in the autism spectrum enjoy their visit without stressful sensory overload.
The museum is collaborating with KultureCity, a nonprofit that has also worked with MetLife Stadium, to offer the training and materials needed to provide a more positive experience for those with autism, PTSD or other conditions that may cause sensory overload.
Free sensory inclusive bags include fidget tools (handheld objects that can be squeezed and manipulated to help focus the user’s sense of touch), cue cards that people with verbal impairments can use to communicate their needs and moods, noise-cancelling headphones and weighted lap pads to help direct the user’s feeling of their center of gravity.
“A common misperception is that autism is just a behavioral disorder, but it affects processes in our nervous system, which can create a feeling of vertigo or the sense of a lack of gravity,” said Elizabeth Torres, a Rutgers professor of psychology and director of The New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence at Rutgers–New Brunswick. “Astronauts who return from a long space mission are given weighted suits to bring back their center of gravity until they readjust. In a similar fashion, people with autism can’t always feel their own body weight. For some, the feeling is constant and very disorienting.”
Through the partnership with Kulture City, Zimmerli staff received training on how to recognize when a visitor may have sensory needs, such as covering their ears or flapping their hands, and how to step in and offer them sensory support.
“We’re now better prepared to assist guests with autism and other sensory sensitivities in having the most comfortable and accommodating experience possible when attending any exhibition or program at the museum,” said Thomas Sokolowski, Zimmerli Art Museum Director.
Before adopting the new sensory tools, the Zimmerli offered customized group tours to visitors with autism and related conditions. A KultureCity app is also available for download that displays available sensory devices at Zimmerli and how they can be accessed, as well as a customized social story, that helps visitors prepare for their visit
“People with sensory disorders and their families now have the freedom to visit at any time and have confidence they will be assisted properly if they experience sensory overload or otherwise need support,” said Amanda Potter, curator of education at the Zimmerli.
Potter said the sensory tools can help people of all ages. “There is also a necklace that visitors can wear that alerts staff to keep a close eye on a person so they don’t get separated from their group, which can happen not only to children but to people with dementia.”
While the sensory tools are a big first step to helping combat sensory sensitivity, Torres said museums can do more, such as partnering with autism centers and offering information cards to improve public understanding of autism-related disorders.
“We are having exploratory conversations with Rutgers’ Center for Adult Autism Services to find more ways to help the autism community in New Jersey, including by providing job services and creating designated quiet spaces during crowded events, such as Rutgers Day,” Potter said. “Autism services are an area for growth, so we will work to expand our services. This is just the start.”
Rutgers-New Brunswick, is a leader in autism research and services, recently appointing its inaugural director of the Rutgers Center for Autism Research, Education and Services (RUCARES) and CHS-RUCARES, a clinical entity created through Rutgers’ partnership with Children’s Specialized Hospital. The university’s Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center includes an on-campus K-12 day school for children with autism. In addition, the university broke ground on a new state-of-the-art facility for the Rutger Center for Adult Autism Services, which provides employment, vocational training and other services and partners with Children’s Specialized Hospital to operate the New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence.