Tag: borderline

Autistic Children and BORDERLINE MOTHER, ANY CONNECTION?

In my personal experience as the father of an autistic child, I have met many parents of autistic children. I have lived with my baby’s mother for ten years and have learned over time to recognize borderline traits in people in a relatively short time.

Parents of autistic children are separated or with a partner from the submissive personality. All (or at least those met by me) had strong characteristics of ‘Borderline Narcissist personality’ “and in general they were female relatives


Now, I don’t think I discovered salt water but I wonder why nobody talks about it? we all agree on the genetic factor but it seems clear to me that even the “Borderline” condition is to be considered a form of female autism directly linked to the autism spectrum and in my opinion an almost regularly repeated condition.

In the past few years there have been references to connections with the mother regarding the autistic spectrum, these theories have been swept away in a recent period to avoid unnecessary emotional affectation in women. What do you think about it? Does my thought make sense?

When chronic pain leads to depression in children

When chronic pain keeps children from being active and social, it’s no surprise that anxiety and depression can become unwelcome playmates.

Unfortunately, this scenario can become a vicious cycle—not only can pain lead to depression and anxiety, but worsening depression and anxiety can worsen pain perception.

Overall, about 5 to 20 percent of children live with chronic pain, usually in the form of musculoskeletal pain, headaches or abdominal pain associated with medical conditions such as juvenile fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, sickle cell anemia, migraines, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic cancer.

Photo by Kat Jayne on Pexels.com

“Parents may feel helpless and frightened as they watch their children try to cope—which can make them feel anxious and depressed, just when they need to be their child’s biggest cheerleader,” said Dr. Taranjeet Jolly, an adult and pediatric psychiatrist at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

Sound familiar? If so, don’t despair. There is help, and it starts with recognizing that a problem exists, Jolly said.

“Look for red flags that depression may be overwhelming your child. Often your first clue is a change in their everyday routine,” Jolly said. “Is their sleep time way up or down? Is there a marked change in their social interaction? Maybe they are more irritable, angry or emotional.”

Jolly suggests starting by talking with your child to get an idea of what might be going on; however, sometimes children might not be able to directly explain or describe depression. The next step would be to follow up with a pediatrician who can rule out other causes of low energy, poor sleep etc. Once it’s established that the child is suffering from depression, a referral to a child psychiatrist is recommended, depending on the complexity of the case.

“The treatment varies according to the level of severity, but something called cognitive behavioral therapy can almost always help,” Jolly said. This approach to pain management is designed to teach children and adolescents coping skills for controlling behavioral, cognitive and physiological responses to pain.

Cognitive behavioral therapy involves educating children and parents about mechanisms by which pain messages are transmitted and perceived as well as the role of the individual in these processes.

Children can be taught various pain-coping skills with guidance in applying the skills in difficult situations. Such skills might include decreasing cognitive responses to pain and relaxation strategies such as distraction, guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation—because nerve fibers can actually open or close the gate for pain channels.

Medication is another option—typically nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and sometimes an anti-depressant. Opioids are not found to be very helpful when dealing with chronic pain issues and can also lead to addiction.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Good sleep habits, aerobic exercise, good social support, positive self-statements—such as “I am stronger than this disease”—and keeping busy are also key to restoring normal function.

Parents should take an active role in promoting their child’s re-entry into school and other social environments. The goals of therapy should focus on promoting function rather than simply alleviating pain. The more functional the patient is, the less pain they feel.

Jolly also encourages parents to work closely with their child’s multidisciplinary medical team—which may include a behavioral specialist/pain psychologist, pain physician, child psychiatrist and physical therapist—to design a plan for physical activity. “It’s a team game where the goal is to help your child stop thinking about the pain and gain as much functionality as possible.”

“As with all challenges in life, some days are better than others, but always trying is the key,” Jolly said.

Borderline Personality Disorder Research and Treatment

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image and behavior, afflicts approximately 2 percent of the general population and is a leading cause of suicide. Eight to 10 percent of individuals with this disorder take their own lives.

“A common misapprehension by family, friends and often by clinicians is that patients with borderline personality disorder are not likely to commit suicide since suicidal behavior is seen as a bid for attention, misjudged as not serious. The prevalence is more than 400 times higher than in the general population,” said John Oldham, MD, MS, senior vice president and chief of staff, The Menninger Clinic, and professor of psychiatry and executive vice chair, Menninger Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine.

Despite the prevalence of BPD, its diagnosis by therapists is often impeded by the lack of awareness and frequent co-occurrence with other conditions, such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety. To help therapists diagnose this disorder and build an alliance with their BPD patients, new ways of categorizing and defining BPD are in consideration. Dr. Oldham is one of the consultants on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), expected to be published in 2011.

BPD usually manifests itself in late adolescence or early adulthood, according to Dr. Oldham.

“Patients with borderline personality disorder often have a stormy course, punctuated with episodes of high-risk behavior. The patient’s symptom profile as well as coexisting conditions, such as substance abuse, influence an individual’s course. Due to the disabling nature of the disorder, accompanied by high levels of emotional pain and distress, patients generally seek treatment and if they adhere to treatment and overcome high-risk behavior, they may ultimately do quite well.”

Officially recognized in 1980 by the psychiatric community, borderline personality disorder is at least two decades behind in research treatment options and education compared to other serious mental illnesses. Congressional Resolution, H. Res. 1005, is awaiting final action to designate May as Borderline Personality Disorder Awareness Month. This resolution acknowledges the pressing burden of those afflicted with borderline personality disorder, confirms the widespread prevalence of this disorder and seeks to spread awareness of this under-recognized and often misunderstood mental illness.

This Menninger Continuing Education Conference, offering continuing education credit to health professionals, is co-sponsored by the National Education Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder (NEA-BPD) and The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) Metropolitan Houston. Topics and speakers include:

  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Overview of Recent Research Findings by John M. Oldham, MD, MS
  • Mentalizing in the Treatment of BPD by Jon G. Allen, PhD
  • Evidence-Based Treatment of BPD by Glen O. Gabbard, MD
  • Borderline Personality as a Self-Other Representational Disturbance by Donna S. Bender, PhD
  • New Developments in the Neurobiology of BPD by Larry J. Siever, MD
  • Borderline Personality Disorder in DSM-V by Andrew E. Skodal, MD

For conference information, see http://www.menningerclinic.com/calendar/BorderlineConf.pdf or call Menninger Education at 713-275-5060. The conference schedule and online registration form is also accessible at: MenningerClinic.com, Calendar, Conferences & Forums; NEABPD.org and NAMI.org, NAMI Metropolitan Houston Website.

The Menninger Clinic is an international specialty psychiatric center, providing treatment, research and education. Founded in 1925 in Kansas, Menninger relocated to Houston in 2003 and is affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital. For 17 consecutive years, Menninger has been named among the leading psychiatric hospitals in U.S.News & World Report‘s annual ranking of America’s Best Hospitals

Saving the Planet, One Drop at a Time

Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), in Laurel, Maryland, have identified highly absorbent materials that can extract drinkable water out of thin air — which could potentially lead to technologies that supply potable water in the driest areas on the planet.

For many of the world’s poor, one of the greatest environmental threats to health remains lack of access to safe water. Scientists at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), in Laurel, Maryland, have identified highly absorbent materials that can extract drinkable water out of thin air – which could potentially lead to technologies that supply potable water in the driest areas on the planet.

The researchers – a team from APL’s Research and Exploratory Development Department led by Zhiyong Xia, Matthew Logan and Spencer Langevin – describe their discovery in the Jan. 30 issue of Scientific Reports, a journal of the Nature Research family. 

Their research leverages metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an amazing next-generation material that has the largest known surface areas per gram – a single gram of the MOF can soak up a football field’s worth of material, if the material were laid in a single layer across the field. The sponge-like crystals can be used to capture, store and release chemical compounds – like water – and the large surface area offers more space for chemical reactions and adsorption of molecules.

MOFs have shown promise for water harvesting, but little research has been done to determine the best properties for fast and efficient production of water.

“Initial experiments have proved that the concept can work,” says Xia. “But the problem has been capacity. Other research teams have been able to produce as much as about  1.3 liters of water per day per kilogram of sorbent  under arid conditions – enough only for one person. To create an optimal water harvesting device requires a better understanding of the structure property relationship controlling absorption and delivery.”

Xia and his team studied a series of MOFs – unraveling the fundamental material properties that govern the kinetics of water sequestration in this class of materials as well as investigating how much water they can absorb. They also explored the potential impact of temperature, humidity and powder bed thickness on the adsorption-desorption process to see which one achieved optimal operational parameters.

“We identified a MOF that could produce 8.66 liters of water per day per kilogram of MOF under ideal conditions, an extraordinary finding.” Xia said. “This will help us deepen our understanding of these materials and guide the discovery of next-generation water harvesting methods.”

Xia and his team are now exploring other MOFs with low relative humidity influx points, high surface areas, and polar functional properties to see how they perform in very dry environments. They are also exploring different configurations of MOFs to determine which allow for optimal absorption.

The researchers drew on APL’s ongoing efforts in water purification methods. APL has developed a novel way to remove highly toxic perfluoroalkyl substances — an ever-expanding group of manufactured chemicals that are widely used to make various types of everyday products — from drinking water. A separate effort yielded a cost-effective method to remove toxic heavy metal ions from drinking water.

“Our scientists’ and engineers’ collective strengths and expertise in materials and chemistry have positioned APL to make extraordinary impact and invent the future of clean drinking water for deployed warfighters, as well as for citizens around the world,” said Ally Bissing-Gibson, APL’s Biological and Chemical Sciences program manager. “We look forward to saving the planet, one drop at a time.”

Want to change your personality?

Most people have an aspect of their personality they’d like to change, but without help it may be difficult to do so, according to a study led by a University of Arizona researcher and published in the Journal of Research in Personality.

Contrary to the once-popular idea that people’s personalities are more or less set in stone, research has proven that personalities do change throughout the lifespan, often in line with major life events. For example, there is evidence that people tend to be more agreeable and conscientious in college, less extroverted after they get married and more agreeable in their retirement years.

While it’s well-established that personalities can change in response to life circumstances, researcher Erica Baranski wondered if people can actively and intentionally change aspects of their personalities at any given point simply because they desire to do so.

She and her colleagues studied two groups of people: approximately 500 members of the general population who ranged in age from 19 to 82 and participated in the research online; and approximately 360 college students.

Both groups completed the 44-item “Big Five Inventory,” which measures five key personality traits: extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience and neuroticism, also referred to as emotional stability. The participants were then asked whether they desired to change any aspect of their personality. If they answered yes, they were asked to write an open-ended description of what they wanted to change.

Across both groups, most people said they desired to increase extroversion, conscientiousness and emotional stability.

The college students were surveyed again six months later, and the general population group was surveyed again a year later. Neither group had achieved the personality goals they set for themselves at the beginning of the study, and, in fact, some saw change in the opposite direction.

“In both samples, the desire to change at ‘time one’ did not predict actual change in the desired direction at all at ‘time two,'” said Baranski, a postdoctoral psychology researcher in the University of Arizona Institute on Place, Wellbeing & Performance. “In the general population sample, we didn’t find that personality change goals predicted any change in any direction.”

College Students Saw More Change

While the general population group exhibited no change in personality traits between the first and second rounds of data collection, the college student group did show some changes; however, they were either in the opposite direction than desired or were for different personality traits than the one the person intended to change.

Specifically, college students who expressed the strongest desires to be more conscientious actually exhibited less conscientiousness six months later. That could be because those individuals exhibited low levels of conscientiousness to begin with, putting them at a disadvantage from the outset, Baranski said.

In addition, students who said they wanted to be more extroverted showed increases in agreeableness and emotionally stability rather than extroversion in the follow-up. Baranski said that perhaps as part of their effort to become more social and extroverted, they actually focused on being friendlier and less socially anxious – behaviors more directly related to agreeability and emotionally stability, respectively.

Baranski said college students may have exhibited more change than the general population because they are in such a transformational period in their lives. Still, the changes they experienced didn’t align with the goals they set for themselves.

“College students are thrown into this new environment, and they may be unhappy and may look within selves to become happier and change some aspect of their personality,” Baranski said. “But, meanwhile, there is a bombardment of other things that they’re told they need to achieve, like doing well in a class or choosing a major or getting an internship, and those goals might take precedence. Even though they know more sustained and introspective change might be better, the short-term effort is more attractive and more necessary in the moment.”

Overall, Baranski’s findings illustrate how difficult it can be for people to change aspects of their personality based on desire alone. That doesn’t mean people can’t make the changes they want. They just might need outside help doing so – from a professional, a friend or maybe even a mobile app reminding them of their goals, Baranski said.

Baranski intentionally did not interact with study participants between the first and second rounds of data collection. That approach differs from that of another researcher, Southern Methodist University’s Nathan Hudson, who in several other separate studies assessed personality change goals over a 16-week period but followed up with participants along the way. In that research, which Baranski cites, experimenters assessed participants’ personality traits and progress toward their goals every few weeks. With that kind of interaction, participants were more successful in making changes.

“There is evidence in clinical psychology that therapeutic coaching leads to change in personality and behavior, and there is recent evidence that suggests that when there’s a lot of regular interaction with an experimenter, personality change is possible,” Baranski said. “But when individuals are left to their own devices, change may not be as likely.”

Future research, Baranski said, should look at how much intervention is needed to help people achieve their personality goals, and which types of strategies work best for different traits.

“Across all the studies that have been done on this topic over the last several years, it’s clear that most people want to change an aspect of their personality,” Baranski said. “If left unattended, those goals aren’t achieved, so it would be helpful for people who have those goals to know what is necessary for them to accomplish them.”

Talks With Kris Godinez

Covert Narcissists/Hermit BPD/ Passive Aggressiveness

Few Effective Treatments

Photo by Emiliano Vittoriosi

No single treatment stands out as especially effective for borderline personality disorder, a mental illness that can involve self-harm and suicide attempts, according to two new reviews of recent studies.

BPD does appear to respond more strongly to certain kinds of psychological “talk” therapies, British researchers found. However, the psychological treatments that showed the most promise were relatively new and supported by “too few data for confidence,” the authors write.

Because both are complex, intensive therapies that require long-term staff training, “we believe that such treatments will only be available to a select few patients,” said co-author Mark Fenton.

The team, led by Conor Duggan of the University of Nottingham and Clive Adams of the University of Leeds, conducted separate reviews on psychological and drug therapies for BPD.

The reviews appear in the current issue of The Cochrane Library, a publication of The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organization that evaluates medical research. Systematic reviews draw evidence-based conclusions about medical practice after considering both the content and quality of existing medical trials on a topic.

The team analyzed findings from seven studies on structured talking therapies, comprising 262 adult outpatients with either a formal diagnosis of BPD or at least three criteria for the illness.

People undergoing a treatment called dialectical behavior therapy appeared to have fewer suicide attempts or thoughts of suicide at six months compared to those in usual care. Introduced in 1991, the treatment involves individual psychotherapy sessions, telephone coaching, lengthy group therapy sessions and cognitive modification.

Treating patients in a day hospital unit geared to psychoanalytic treatment also seemed to “decrease admission and use of prescribed medication and increase social improvement and social adjustment,” the reviewers found.

Although both treatments are “difficult to apply to everyday care,” the researchers say that results so far suggest that “the problems of people with borderline personality disorder may be amenable to treatment.”

BPD is characterized by “an internal sense of emptiness and an inability to regulate emotion, going from high to low levels of emotion very quickly,” according to Scott Haltzman, M.D, a professor at Brown University. “These people tend to respond to the world with swings from rage to glee.”

Two percent of the general population and 20 percent of psychiatric inpatients have borderline personality disorder. Borderline patients are overwhelmingly female (75 percent).

“This group of people is often a challenge to health service providers,” said Fenton, who is also editor of the U.K.-based “Database of Uncertainties About the Effects of Treatments. He said that people with BPD have difficulty engaging in relationships, including relationships with therapists.

Unlike some other psychiatric conditions, there is no widely accepted drug regimen for borderline personality disorder.

“If offered medication, people with BPD should know that this is not based on good evidence,” the reviewers concluded.

The second review pooled results from ten small, short-term randomized studies on drug therapies for BPD. These studies involved 554 patients, both inpatients and outpatients

Studies of the various drugs used “show that antidepressants offered the best chance of improvement, but even here, results were not robust,” according to Fenton. “For ratings of anger, fluoxetine (Prozac) may offer some improvement over placebo,” the researchers say.

Although the antipsychotic drug haloperidol showed some improvement in symptoms of hostility, “the numbers are so small it is likely to be a false positive,” said Fenton. The reviewers do not recommend the use of antipsychotic drugs for borderline personality disorder outside of clinical trials.

Although the drug data were not encouraging, “that does not mean (medication) may not do considerable good, and there is no indication of significant harm,” the reviewers wrote. “People with BPD or their carers are in a position to lobby for and facilitate good research in this area.”

Binks CA et al. Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1.

Binks CA, et al. Pharmacological interventions for people with borderline personality disorder. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1.

The Cochrane Collaboration is an international nonprofit, independent organization that produces and disseminates systematic reviews of health care interventions and promotes the search for evidence in the form of clinical trials and other studies of interventions. Visit http://www.cochrane.org for more information.

INTERVIEWS Contact Mark Fenton at 0044 (0)1865 517622 or at mfenton@cochrane-sz.org

Rethinking interactions with mental health patients

Credit: Pixabay

New research overturns the belief that people with severe mental illness are incapable of effective communication with their psychiatrist, and are able to work together with them to achieve better outcomes for themselves.

“Interviews are a critical part of assessing people suffering from thought disorder (TD), and deciding what the best therapy is for them,” says Professor Cherrie Galletly from the Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide.

“Clinical interactions with people suffering with severe mental illness can be challenging, especially if the patient has disordered communication.”

Published in the journal Australian Psychiatry the study analysed 24 routine clinical interviews between psychiatrists and inpatients, with a mean age of just under 30 years, who were suffering from TD.

“The study, the first of its kind, examined the expertise with which psychiatrists conducted clinical interviews of people suffering from TD, and the shared goals that were accomplished,” says Professor Galletly.

“When interviewing people with TD psychiatrists need to adopt a mindset that the information the patient provides in that particular moment is, for them, meaningful, truthful, relevant and clear.

“They have to piece together snippets of information in order to create and interpret meaning and build respectful relationships by inviting patients to share their perspectives no matter how disordered or delusional their responses appear.”

Thought disorder is common in psychotic disorders. The thoughts and conversation of people suffering from TD appear illogical and lacking in sequence and may be delusional or bizarre in content.

In 2010, 0.3% of Australians aged 18-64 years, had a psychotic illness with men aged 25-34 experiencing the highest rates (0.5%) of illness.

“Patients are positioned as active participants by psychiatrists who adopt a non-confrontational, non-judgemental approach, conveying support and safety, and ask open ended questions which allows the patient to engage, feel listened to, and work with the psychiatrist to achieve a shared understanding,” says Professor Galletly.

“Findings from this study of sample interviews between psychiatrists and their patients highlight the need to rethink the notion that patients experiencing TD are incapable of communicating productively with the people trying to help them.

“Psychiatrists use transactional, relational and interactional techniques when they are talking to patients with thought disorder, which go beyond techniques normally employed in clinical interviews.

“Experienced psychiatrists undertake meaningful interviews with these patients, who in turn respond in ways that belie the notion that effective communication is not possible.

“The findings from this research can be used to develop training resources for clinicians who work with people with psychotic disorders.”

Does Crime Really Rise During a Full Moon?

      

Photo by Thomas Brenac

 

 

 

 

 

 

New York University researchers looked into it, just in time for Halloween. 

 

Just in time for Halloween, the BetaGov team at NYU’s Marron Institute of Urban Management is releasing a three-country study on the “lunar effect.”

 

Betagov, which carries out randomized controlled trials for, and collaborates with, stakeholders in the field, looked into the purported relationship between crime and the full moon. The investigation resulted from a conversation with a police official in Vallejo, CA, and an article on the phenomenon he pointed out from Australia.

To start out, BetaGov researchers conducted a review of the overall research literature on the “lunar effect,” which, surprisingly, is mixed. Some studies have found evidence of a lunar effect on crime and negative behavior, and others show none at all.

The Vallejo police official, meanwhile, pulled together his agency’s crime data from January 2014 through May 2018. He researched phases of the moon for each crime event, and sent BetaGov his data for analysis. According to the analysis, the data demonstrated that there’s no association between crime events and full moon. In Vallejo, California, at least, people don’t commit more crimes when there is a full moon.

Other police departments heard about this analysis and were curious whether there was evidence for the lunar hypothesis in their own data. To make sure North America was represented, BetaGov teed up replication studies with the Barrie (Ontario) Police Service in Canada and the Irapuato Citizen Safety Secretariat in Mexico. The team merged moon-phase data into their calls-for-service and crime data.

What was found? Again, nothing.

“Although these kinds of analyses are fun, the findings have practical implications for policing such as in developing staffing assignments and distribution of other law-enforcement resources. The bottom line is be vigilant in questioning your assumptions and use your data to explore. It might just surprise you,” said BetaGov director Angela Hawken (PhD), a professor of public policy at the NYU Marron Institute.

To see the individual research briefs, or to speak with Dr. Hawken, please contact NYU public affairs officer Robert Polner at robert.polner(at)nyu.edu .

 

 

ABOUT BETAGOV: Our team includes psychologists, economists, policy experts, clinical researchers, statisticians, and consultants with decades of experience planning and conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and collaborating with stakeholders in the field. Supported initially by funding from Give Well and Good Ventures, and by subsequent funding from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation and the Smith Richardson Foundation, our services are provided at no cost. Visit http://betagov.org/index.html

 

Borderline Mother and Autism (Part 1)

Credit Photo Velizar Ivanov

By Fabrizio Catalfamo

“I would like to point out that this is not an article to blame mothers but a simple (non-technical) analysis, the result of personal experiences, therefore to be read in a narrative and non-scientific way, on the other hand I would not have the necessary qualifications.”

I am the father of three splendid boys, two of those born of a second marriage. One of the two youngest will turn twelve in four days, diagnosed in autism spectrum when he was 3 years old. The mother, never diagnosed (also because she refuses every test) in my opinion with deep teenage borderline wounds.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Is a condition characterized by difficulties regulating emotion. This means that people who experience BPD feel emotions intensely and for extended periods of time, and it is harder for them to return to a stable baseline after an emotionally triggering event.

This difficulty can lead to impulsivity, poor self-image, stormy relationships and intense emotional responses to stressors. Struggling with self-regulation can also result in dangerous behaviors such as self-harm (e.g. cutting).

It’s estimated that 1.4% of the adult U.S. population experiences BPD. Nearly 75% of people diagnosed with BPD are women. Recent research suggests that men may be equally affected by BPD, but are commonly misdiagnosed with PTSD or depression. 

Autism is related to emotional disorder

I lived for more than 10 years with the mother of my 2 children and after the first apparently “normal” times, the borderline personality manifested itself.
This led me to try to understand the reasons and the causes of all this, reading and informing myself, about this type of disorder that destroyed the relations of this woman at the same speed as everyone could fall in love with her.

Over time, I learned to recognize this kind of personality and at the same time for obvious reasons, I met parents of other autistic children. The thing that struck me at the beginning was that, the most part of the parents were single parents and those that were not, presented with evidence the presence of the man, subordinate to the woman. Clearly in the rare cases of couples, the man appeared as a second-rate figure.
I wouldn’t want to bore you too much with this story, I promise you I’ll follow up on the next posts.
Follow me!