Tag: Autism

Bullying children with autism

Photo by Quin Stevenson

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BINGHAMTON, NY – Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience bullying than children without ASD and this bullying gets worse with age, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Hannah Morton, a graduate student in the clinical psychology PhD program at Binghamton University, aimed to conceptualize bullying in children with ASD in order to specifically identify different bullying and behavior types. Her research also emphasizes the need to establish better definitions of bullying behaviors.

“This research is important because it contributes to our understanding of how bullying is nuanced,” said Morton. “This variability means it is crucial to establish a definition for bullying and have standard assessments to know when and what types of bullying are occurring.”

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Morton, along with Binghamton psychologists Jennifer Gillis, Richard Mattson and Raymond Romanczyk, focused this study on teachers and parents of children with ASD, and community members without an ASD child. Participants took a survey containing 80 scenarios of interactions between two school-aged children. The scenarios varied from children ages four to fifteen. Sixty-four of these scenarios contained a type of bullying behavior (i.e. physical, verbal, interpersonal and cyber). The participants were randomly presented with 16 scenarios, and were asked to rate the severity of the interaction between the two children, as well as indicate which types of bullying were present.

Results showed that a child’s increased age predicted higher bullying severity ratings. The findings also showed that bullying among older children with ASD is viewed as especially problematic by their parents, and that perceived bullying severity differed according to the type of bullying behavior (i.e., physical, verbal, interpersonal, and cyber). 

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“This paper emphasizes that bullying is a really broad construct,” said Morton. “What any two people might be referring to when they use the term ‘bullying’—regardless if they are parents, teachers, researchers, etc.— likely differs, and perhaps in subtle ways.”

Morton plans to further her research on this topic by focusing specifically on the bullying behaviors that children with ASD experience compared to children without ASD.

This research was conducted through Binghamton University’s Institute for Child Development, which offers early intervention services, speech services and more to children and families in the Binghamton region. 

The paper, “Conceptualizing bullying in children with autism spectrum disorder: Using a mixed model to differentiate behavior types and identify predictors,” was published in Autism.

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Autistic Adolescents Want to Learn to Drive

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Photo by Alex Jumper

Specialized driving instructors stress life skill development, parent-supervised practice, and individualized training to enhance learning and independence

Autistic adolescents need the support of their parents or guardians to prioritize independence so that they are prepared for learning to drive, according to a study of specialized driving instructors who have worked specifically with young autistic drivers. These findings were compiled by researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and recently published in the journal Autism in Adulthood.

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Driving instructors also emphasized the need to develop and refine best practices to guide assessment and delivery of highly individualized instruction for autistic adolescents. 

The study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from CHOP’s Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Center for Autism Research, and Division of Emergency Medicine, as well as the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), as part of a five-year study aimed at understanding mobility issues for autistic adolescents funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This is the first paper published as part of the study.

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“Through our interviews with specialized driving instructors, we learned they believe parents are a critical partner in preparing for and undertaking independent driving,” said Rachel K. Myers, PhD, lead author of the study and scientist at the Center for Injury Research and Prevention at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). “Instructors recommend that parents help their children develop independent life skills, including the use of alternative forms of transportation such as bicycling or mass transit, and to practice pre-driving skills, such as navigation, before undertaking on-road driving lessons.”

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Driving instructors are an important resource for families, especially for those with autistic adolescents learning to drive. However, because not much is known about the specific experience of teaching autistic adolescents how to drive, this limits the ability to provide adolescents and families with proper guidance preparing for the learning-to-drive process. To help bridge this gap, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with specialized driving instructors who had experience working with autistic adolescents and young adults. This is the first study to examine the process and experience of driving instructors who provide behind-the-wheel training specifically for this population.

The study revealed a set of common themes that underscored the importance of parents of autistic adolescents in preparation for the learning-to-drive process, with driving instructors viewing parents as essential partners in supporting their efforts in teaching driving skills and promoting independence. Participating instructors said parents can support and prioritize independence by encouraging their autistic adolescents to develop life skills, such as mowing the lawn, cooking, and taking public transportation, before learning to drive.

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Although the driving instructors identified a need to develop and refine best practices for assessment and instruction, they recognized that specific approaches must be tailored to meet the unique needs of each autistic adolescent driver, reflecting the spectrum that affects each adolescent differently. Other suggestions from the instructors involved in this study included using of state-level vocational rehabilitation services to provide financial support for instruction, identifying and promoting prerequisite life skills prior to undertaking driving, parent-supervised driving instruction in partnership with professional driving instruction, and tailoring instruction to address the particular needs of learner drivers.

“What these specialized driving instructors told us about the disconnect between driving and other life skills was surprising,” said Benjamin E. Yerys, PhD, study author and psychologist at the Center for Autism Research at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. “Some parents may not let their autistic adolescents use a stovetop oven, but are asking if their teens are ready to drive. Whether or not their children decide to drive, parents should encourage greater independence by encouraging them to get around on their own. Traveling independently by driving or other modes of transportation is key to continuing their education, working, and staying connected with friends and family.”

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Obtaining a driver’s license is a major milestone in the transition to adulthood. This milestone increases the independence and mobility of adolescents, which can potentially lead to improved access to educational, occupational training, social, and community engagement opportunities. According to previous CHOP research, nearly one-third of autistic adolescents obtain a driver’s license by the time they are 21 years old, which may improve their ability to transition into independent adulthood.

Resources for families to help their teens with ASD transition to adulthood are available at The Center for Autism Research at CHOP and TeenDriverSource.org.

This work was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health awards R01HD079398 and R01HD096221.

Myers et al, “Teaching Autistic Adolescents and Young Adults to Drive: Perspectives of Specialized Driving Instructors.” Autism in Adulthood, online May 22, 2019. doi.org/10.1089/aut.2018.0054.

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About Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia was founded in 1855 as the nation’s first pediatric hospital. Through its long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new generations of pediatric healthcare professionals, and pioneering major research initiatives, Children’s Hospital has fostered many discoveries that have benefited children worldwide. Its pediatric research program is among the largest in the country. In addition, its unique family-centered care and public service programs have brought the 564-bed hospital recognition as a leading advocate for children and adolescents. For more information, visit http://www.chop.edu

Autism Drug Citalopram Is Ineffective

Photo by JOSHUA COLEMAN
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A drug commonly given to autistic children to reduce repetitive behaviors is ineffective compared to placebo and, in some children, may actually increase repetitive behaviors, the largest study of autistic children to date has found.

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“What we found, much to our surprise, is that there was no significant difference in positive response between kids treated with citalopram and kids who received the placebo. And the kids treated with citalopram tended to have more side effects,” said Linmarie Sikich, M.D., a co-author of the study and associate professor of psychiatry in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine.

“I cannot emphasize this enough: This was not at all what we expected to see,” Sikich said.

Results of the study, a randomized controlled clinical trial of the drug citalopram, are published in the June 29, 2009 issue of Archives of General Psychiatry. It was funded by the National Institutes of Health and took place at six academic medical centers across the country. Principal investigator and lead author of the study is Bryan H. King, M.D., who began the study at Dartmouth and continued to oversee it there after he moved to the University of Washington, where he is currently director of psychiatry and behavioral medicine at Seattle Children’s Hospital.

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Citalopram, which is sold under the brand name Celexa, is one of a class of antidepressant drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. SSRIs are the most frequently used medications for children with autism. They are also used to treat depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder in both adults and children. Prior to this study there was very little scientific evidence to support the use of SSRIs in autistic children, but some preliminary studies showed promising results for citalopram, Sikich said.

Hypothesizing that citalopram would improve the overall functioning of autistic children and adolescents by reducing repetitive behavior, Sikich and colleagues recruited 149 children ages 5 to 17 to take part in the 12-week trial. Seventy-three received daily doses of liquid citalopram while 76 received daily doses of liquid placebo. Researchers measured the children’s’ response to treatment using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I). They also recorded measures of repetitive behavior and side effects.

At the end of the trial, some children in both groups showed a positive response. However, there was no significant difference between the groups: the positive response in the citalopram group was 32.9 percent versus 34.2 percent in the placebo group. In addition, children in the citalopram group were significantly more likely to experience adverse side effects such as increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, increased repetitive movements and behaviors, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry itchy skin.

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The researchers concluded that citalopram “is not an effective treatment” for autistic children with repetitive behaviors. In addition, they wrote, this trial shows that the use of SSRIs in autistic children “is not without risk” and “at present there is insufficient research evidence to merit a clear recommendation regarding the use of SSRIs as a class” for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

“The obvious short term message is, this treatment didn’t work. And that surprised us a great deal,” Sikich says. “But the really important take-home message is that we have to do large, scientifically-sound comparative studies like this to really know whether a specific treatment works and is safe. Simply relying on doctors’ and families’ impressions often leads us to use medications that really don’t work and may do more harm than good” says Sikich.

Safe and effective medication and behavioral treatments are desperately needed to help children with autism realize their potentials and keep from harming themselves or others, Sickish says.

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“Well-done studies, using methods like the ones in this study, have shown that another drug, risperidone, is useful in reducing irritability and aggression in children with autism,” she says. “Thus, this study shouldn’t be interpreted as saying all medications don’t help people with autism and are harmful. Instead it says that citalopram doesn’t help most children with autism and is harmful to some children. Clearly we need more research to develop and test other interventions for this important problem.”

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People with autism are severely impaired by the disorder and experience major problems with highly repetitive behaviors, often including self-injurious behaviors, communicating and interacting appropriately with others. Frequently the repetitive behaviors keep children with autism from learning in school or participating in age appropriate activities. When it is time to stop the repetitive behavior and begin a new, functional activity, many children with autism become distraught and aggressive. These repetitive behaviors also contribute to the difficulties that make it hard for most people with autism to live independently or work as adults, Sikich says.

In addition to UNC, academic medical centers taking part in the study were Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Dartmouth, UCLA and Yale University.

The study was conducted as part of the NIH-sponsored Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment network.

Borderline Mother and Autism (Part 1)

Credit Photo Velizar Ivanov

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By Fabrizio Catalfamo

“I would like to point out that this is not an article to blame mothers but a simple (non-technical) analysis, the result of personal experiences, therefore to be read in a narrative and non-scientific way, on the other hand I would not have the necessary qualifications.”

I am the father of three splendid boys, two of those born of a second marriage. One of the two youngest will turn twelve in four days, diagnosed in autism spectrum when he was 3 years old. The mother, never diagnosed (also because she refuses every test) in my opinion with deep teenage borderline wounds.

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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Is a condition characterized by difficulties regulating emotion. This means that people who experience BPD feel emotions intensely and for extended periods of time, and it is harder for them to return to a stable baseline after an emotionally triggering event.

This difficulty can lead to impulsivity, poor self-image, stormy relationships and intense emotional responses to stressors. Struggling with self-regulation can also result in dangerous behaviors such as self-harm (e.g. cutting).

It’s estimated that 1.4% of the adult U.S. population experiences BPD. Nearly 75% of people diagnosed with BPD are women. Recent research suggests that men may be equally affected by BPD, but are commonly misdiagnosed with PTSD or depression. 

Autism is related to emotional disorder

I lived for more than 10 years with the mother of my 2 children and after the first apparently “normal” times, the borderline personality manifested itself.
This led me to try to understand the reasons and the causes of all this, reading and informing myself, about this type of disorder that destroyed the relations of this woman at the same speed as everyone could fall in love with her.

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Over time, I learned to recognize this kind of personality and at the same time for obvious reasons, I met parents of other autistic children. The thing that struck me at the beginning was that, the most part of the parents were single parents and those that were not, presented with evidence the presence of the man, subordinate to the woman. Clearly in the rare cases of couples, the man appeared as a second-rate figure.
I wouldn’t want to bore you too much with this story, I promise you I’ll follow up on the next posts.
Follow me!

iPads and Teens with Autism

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As adults, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly dependent on family members or assistance programs for their day-to-day living needs. It has been reported that following high school and up to eight years after, only 17 percent of adults with ASD live independently. Developing skills like cooking, getting dressed and cleaning are essential to promoting autonomy and self-determination and improving quality of life. For some individuals with ASD, completing daily tasks can be challenging because they often involve sequential steps.

Research has shown that people with ASD are strong visual learners. With technological advances, devices such as smartphones and tablets have become more portable and ultimately, accessible to caregivers. However, few studies have examined whether parents can learn to effectively deliver evidence-based practices using portable, mainstream devices like an iPad.

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Researchers from Florida Atlantic University and collaborators conducted a small, novel study to examine whether video prompting interventions using an iPad could be effective in increasing parents’ competence and confidence to use mobile devices to interact with their adolescent children with ASD. The objective was to evaluate the effects of behavior skills training with follow-along coaching to instruct parents to deliver video prompting with an iPad to teach daily living skills to their children. What makes this study unique is that parents of adolescents were coached and learned to use an iPad in their own homes. While other studies have been successful in teaching parents to implement evidence-based practices, they largely targeted parents of young children.

For the study, published in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, researchers targeted parents of adolescents with ASD who would be transitioning into adulthood in the near future and who needed to cultivate independent living skills to decrease dependency on others, while improving self-esteem and confidence. Each child, between the ages of 12 and 17 years old, had to complete a skill selected by the parents: make a bed, cook pasta or tie shoelaces. Parents received guidance on using an iPad and implementing the intervention. They learned how to guide their child to watch the instructional video, imitate what they viewed, and then provide appropriate feedback.

Depending on the outcome, parents were asked to provide praise, correct the errors or demonstrate the step themselves if the child made two or more consecutive errors on the same task step. Lead researcher of the study Elisa Cruz-Torres, Ed.D., in the Department of Exceptional Student Education in FAU’s College of Education, visited families’ homes three times a week for one hour for each family’s intervention, which lasted between five to seven weeks.

Results of the study showed that all of the children substantially improved correct and independent completion of their daily living skills, which validates that video prompting procedures are effective in ameliorating skill deficits.

While parents were successful in implementing the video prompting preparation and procedures, they were inconsistent with the consequence strategies such as social praise and error correction. None-the-less, the children still mastered their skills and maintained the skill three weeks after the end of the intervention.

“Our findings show that video prompting interventions produced both immediate and lasting effects for children with autism spectrum disorder and that parents can be powerful delivery agents to increase independence in their children,” said Cruz-Torres. “While it is desirable that parents follow steps exactly, we learned that even with slight variations in parent delivery, the teens still mastered the intended skills.”

Data from this study also revealed that none of the children required more than 17 interventions to reach mastery criteria. In addition, this study draws attention to the importance of evidence-based practices for families of older children with ASD.

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“Now, when I’m working with my son to learn a new skill or even talk about a new skill, because of this study I have learned to break it down into smaller pieces rather than asking him to do the whole thing. We use this concept for other things like doing laundry. I’ve also learned that he is very responsive to praise,” said Susan Freeman, a parent in the study. “John is a very visual learner so being able to see what each step should look like enables him to complete the task. He’s still making his bed and we’re working on changing the sheets, which is a new skill. I don’t have to make his bed anymore.”

Freeman’s son Johnathon “John” DiFusco also is pleased with this instructional method, which makes him feel good about himself as well as proud.

“Now, I can be on time for school and I also know how to vacuum,” said DiFusco.  

Co-authors of the study are Mary Louise Duffy, Ph.D., a retired professor; Michael P. Brady, Ph.D., a professor and chair; and Peggy Goldstein, Ed.D.; an associate professor, all within FAU’s Department of Exceptional Student Education; and Kyle D. Bennett, Ed.D., associate professor, Department of Teaching and Learning, Florida International University.  

– FAU – 

About Florida Atlantic University:

Florida Atlantic University, established in 1961, officially opened its doors in 1964 as the fifth public university in Florida. Today, the University, with an annual economic impact of $6.3 billion, serves more than 30,000 undergraduate and graduate students at sites throughout its six-county service region in southeast Florida. FAU’s world-class teaching and research faculty serves students through 10 colleges: the Dorothy F. Schmidt College of Arts and Letters, the College of Business, the College for Design and Social Inquiry, the College of Education, the College of Engineering and Computer Science, the Graduate College, the Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College, the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, the Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing and the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science. FAU is ranked as a High Research Activity institution by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The University is placing special focus on the rapid development of critical areas that form the basis of its strategic plan: Healthy aging, biotech, coastal and marine issues, neuroscience, regenerative medicine, informatics, lifespan and the environment. These areas provide opportunities for faculty and students to build upon FAU’s existing strengths in research and scholarship. For more information, visit www.fau.edu.

Animals can lie to themselves too

Like Humans, Crayfish Talk a Tough Game

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Self-deception like this seems very human. Now, thanks to a recent study led by an Arizona State University biologist, for the first time we know that it happens in the animal kingdom, too.

Crayfish are some of the most aggressive creatures on earth. They fight with big claws capable of doing real damage. But sometimes there’s not much muscle under the bravado.

“What males are doing is making as little crappy muscle as possible, which is energetically saving,” said Michael Angilletta, a biology professor in the School of Life Sciences.

It’s like buying designer knockoffs. You save a lot of money, and most people can’t tell the difference. In the case of crayfish, you make a big claw without much muscle, and you put crappy muscle on it to boot. Everyone sees you wave your big claw and they presume that you’re a powerful crayfish.

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“Since they signal to each other before fighting, this is a way they can convince someone to back down without fighting,” Angilletta said. “Importantly, this only works if there’s enough crayfish out there that have big claws that are actually strong. If you accidentally fight one of those and call a bluff, you’re going to lose a claw.”

In the crayfish world, losing a claw is a disaster: It takes up to two years for a claw to regenerate. In the meantime, no one is mating with anyone who has a puny claw. 

Angilletta and his co-authors have been studying self-deception in crayfish for about 10 years. In 2006 they accidentally discovered that many crayfish with big claws were quite weak. There was about a tenfold variation.

“You would go, ‘Oh, this (pinch) is going to hurt,’ but it doesn’t hurt at all,” Angilletta said. “The question is are they not trying, or are they really not strong? And it’s repeatable from day after day with the same individuals.”

They combined mathematical modeling with an experiment to show that crayfish meet the criteria for self-deception. This approach opens up the possibility of studying self-deception in nonhuman animals, without being able to talk to them. They used 97 adult males, staging fights between 20 select crayfish and 77 opponents.

“How do we know what a crayfish would do if it knows whether it’s weak or it’s strong?” Angilletta asked. “If it knows that (it has a weak claw), it should actually be less aggressive.”

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It might escalate up to the point of a fight, and then run away. The probability that a crayfish engaged in a fight depended on two factors: the relative size of its claws and the expected difference in force. How do they know how strong (or not) they are? Crayfish use claws to deter predators, defend territory and capture prey. They have a pretty good idea of how strong their own claws are. They’re also skilled at assessing their size versus an opponent’s. They can even recognize previous opponents.

So natural selection has given them an ability to detect size and identity. Given that they have those abilities, it naturally follows that they have an ability to gauge strength when knowing it will improve decisions.

“In our population of crayfish, deceptive signalers largely ignored their own strength when escalating or evading aggression,” Angilletta said. “If this benefit of heightened aggression outweighs any long-term cost, natural selection should favor individuals who escalate aggression through self-deception.”

In other words, they buy into their own bluff. Angilletta teaches a biology course on human behavior called “Why people steal, cheat, and lie,” which explores the ecological and evolutionary causes of selfishness and cooperation in human societies.

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“What’s new about this study is that if you’re ever in a situation where I’m lying to you, there’s also a possibility I’m selling my lie exceptionally well because I’ve convinced myself that it’s true,” he said. “That’s because of self-deception. It’s very common in psychology but it’s not really that much in biology because we’re usually thinking about nonhuman animals and we don’t know what they’re thinking. We have a hard time understanding what they know and don’t know.”

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The paper was published last summer in Behavioral Ecology.

Video Credits:  Ken Fagan, ASU

Photo Credit: Charlie Leight, ASU

About ASU

Arizona State University has developed a new model for the American Research University, creating an institution that is committed to access, excellence and impact. ASU measures itself by those it includes, not by those it excludes. As the prototype for a New American University, ASU pursues research that contributes to the public good, and ASU assumes major responsibility for the economic, social and cultural vitality of the communities that surround it.

Appeal to Teens and Parents to Get Vaccinated

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Unity Consortium is thrilled to welcome newest member, Ethan Lindenberger, a 19-year oldAmerican activist known for his opposition to vaccine misinformation efforts. Ethan will be featured in a number of resources as part of Unity’s Voice of AYA (Adolescents and Young Adults) campaign.

Ethan grew up being told that vaccines cause autism, brain damage, and do not benefit the health and safety of society despite the fact such opinions have been debunked numerous times by the scientific community. Through his own research, and relying on scientific evidence, he learned that vaccinations are proven to be a medical miracle, stopping the spread of numerous diseases and therefore saving countless lives. Ethan was dismayed that stories often spread through social media based on skepticism and falsities and were putting lives at danger.

“We all need to follow the CDC’s recommendations and be protected from all vaccine-preventable diseases,” noted Lindenberger.  “I felt a connection with Unity and jumped at the opportunity to become a member because they understand the value of teen and young adult involvement and our ability to be proactive and make the best decisions for ourselves based on decades of research.”

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The goal of the campaign is to encourage young adults and teens to get up-to-date with recommended vaccinations and to teach them how to spot vaccine-related misinformation on the internet.  With new outbreaks in diseases, such as the measles epidemics that have hit multiple states in the US, it’s important to spread the word about the importance of vaccinations.  A Unity survey conducted by Harris poll found that 4 in 10 parents and nearly 6 in 10 teens believe teens should only see a doctor for an illness, which likely reduces opportunities for physicians to discuss preventive health measures, such as vaccination. Similarly, the survey showed that 1 in 4 parents and teens believe that vaccines are for babies and not as important for teens.

Unity’s programs focus on educating teens, young adults and parents with evidence based vaccine information. It is done in a way that is grounded in science and with respect to his generation so that teens and young adults feel empowered to make decisions for themselves.

Outcome Health, a technology company providing health education at the moment of care, partnered with Unity to produce video spots featuring Ethan.  Dr. Laura Offutt a physician and teen health advocate is also featured in the spots as an expert source. Since 2018, Outcome Health has delivered Unity’s vaccination and preventative healthcare messages across its nationwide point-of-care platform; this is the first time the organizations have collaborated on a joint video campaign. Outcome Health will run the videos on their screens in tens of thousands of doctors’ offices across the country. Ethan will also post a number of blogs about AYA vaccination over the coming months.

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“Millions of adolescents and young adults in the U.S. are not fully vaccinated and not even aware that they’re missing recommended vaccines,” said Judy Klein, President of Unity Consortium. “We are working with Ethan to amplify his voice.  He is all about galvanizing teens to do their homework on the power of vaccination to protect themselves against preventable diseases, and the imperative of being caught up on all missing immunizations. Outcome Health is a valued and exceptional partner in broadly disseminating this message.”

Unity also developed a first-of-its-kind campaign (VAX@16) emphasizing the 16-year-old well-visit and the vaccines that can help protect teens as they head into adulthood. Unity’s VAX@16 campaign aims to increase awareness among parents, teens, and health care providers of the vaccinations recommended for 16-year-olds, including Meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY), Meningococcal B (MenB), and flu (seasonally). 

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Ethan commented, “We each have the power to protect ourselves from serious and potentially dangerous illnesses like meningitis and the measles.  We grew up learning to wear a helmet when we rode a bike in case we fall and to wear a seat belt in casewe are in an accident.  What about getting a vaccine in casewe are exposed to a lethal illness?” 

The Voices of AYA campaign featuring Ethan Lindenberger resourcesare available on Unity’s website and include videos that feature Ethan and Dr. Laura Offutt, Lead for Unity’s Teen Advisory Council.

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About Unity Consortium

Unity Consortium is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization that brings together diverse groups that share a common and passionate interest in maintaining life-long health, with a focus on adolescent and young adult preventive healthcare and immunization.Unity members and liaisons represent professional/trade organizations, coalitions/educational organizations, public health, providers, technology and communications organizations, and vaccine manufacturers.

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Media Contact:

Debbie Kanterman

Communications, UnityTM Consortium

Email:debbiekanterman@yahoo.com

Phone: 914-512-0277

Sweating People

Photo by Food Photographer | Jennifer Pallian

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When people become stressed, their bodies can respond by sweating. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri are monitoring how much adolescents severely affected by autism sweat in order to better understand when behavioral issues, such as aggression, are likely to occur.

Bradley Ferguson analyzed the stress levels of eight adolescents who are severely affected by autism spectrum disorder at The Center for Discovery, a residential facility in New York that provides advanced care and research for individuals with complex conditions. Using wrist and ankle monitors, Ferguson found that there was a rise in the body’s electrodermal activity – which results from increased levels of sweat – 60% of the time before an individual showed behavioral issues.

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“A spike in electrodermal activity is telling us that the individual’s body is reacting physiologically to something that is stressful, which could be their internal state, something in the environment, or a combination of the two,” said Ferguson, assistant research professor in the departments of health psychology, radiology and the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. “If parents or caregivers are notified ahead of time that their child’s stress levels are rising, they might have a chance to intervene and de-escalate the situation before problem behaviors occur.”

Ferguson explained that possible intervention methods could include removing the child from the environment or activity that is causing the stress, as well as providing access to an item that the child enjoys interacting with in an effort to calm them.

“Individuals who are severely affected by autism spectrum disorder are often unable to verbally communicate their discomfort when they become stressed,” Ferguson said. “However, their body still responds to stressors just like anyone else. Therefore, being alerted of increases in electrodermal activity can allow parents and caregivers to intervene prior to engagement in problem behavior with the goal of ensuring the health and safety of those involved.”

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Ferguson collaborated on the study with David Beversdorf, a professor of radiology, neurology and psychology in the MU College of Arts and Science as well as principal investigator of the Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory in the MU School of Medicine. Ferguson also collaborated with Theresa Hamlin, Johanna Lantz, and Tania Villavicencio at The Center for Discovery, and John Coles at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center and The State University of New York at Buffalo.

“Important work is being done to try to identify predictors for when a person with autism is at greatest risk of having a behavioral episode,” Beversdorf said. “This research highlights the individual variability in this response that must be considered, and may also have implications for individualized treatment approaches moving forward.”

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“Examining the association between electrodermal activity and problem behavior in severe autism spectrum disorder: A feasibility study,” was published in Frontiers in Psychiatry.

The study was funded by the New York State Center of Excellence, New York State Department of Health and Office for People with Developmental Disabilities, as well as private monies donated to The Center for Discovery. The content is solely the responsibilities of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.

The Department of Health Psychology is in the MU School of Health Professions, and the Department of Radiology is in the MU School of Medicine.

Egoists (a book of supermen)

Free book for autism research

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Donations

$1.00

By F. Guzzardi

This new edition of Huneker’s book that saw his first appearance in 1909, is wholly devoted to those modern poets, philosophers and prose masters whose writings embody the individualistic idea as opposed to altruistic and
socialistic sentiments.

Amply discussed are Stendhal, whose cult, recently revived on the Continent, is steadily growing; Maurice Barres, French Academician; Anatole France, blithe pagan and delicious ironist; Max Stimer, the forerunner of Nietzsche; The mystics, Ernest Hello new to American readers and William Blake. Much new historical material can be found in the studies of Charles Baudelaire and Gustave Flaubert.

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The hitherto unpublished letter of the novelist, along with an original page proof of “Madame Bovary,” corrected by his own hand, will prove of interest to his admirers. That brilliant virtuoso of the French language, J. K.
Huysmans, forms the subject of a chapter, while certain phases of Nietzsche, including his famous published biography, “Ecce Homo”, and Ibsen dramas, are also subjects of discussion. Altogether the book represents the most mature critical and analytical thought of the author applied to some of the most interesting literary characters in the modern Europe of 1909.

Harvard University to Launch Center for Autism Research

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Autism and related disorders—a constellation of neurodevelopmental conditions affecting one in 59 children in the United States alone—have become one of modern medicine’s most confounding mysteries. The condition is believed to arise from the complex interplay between genes and environment, yet its basic biology remains largely a black box.

Now, a new research effort at Harvard University led by Harvard Medical School is poised to identify the biologic roots and molecular changes that give rise to autism and related disorders with the goal of informing the development of better diagnostic tools and new therapies. Harvard University has received a $20 million gift from philanthropists Lisa Yang and Hock Tan, an alumnus of Harvard Business School, to establish The Hock E. Tan and K. Lisa Yang Center for Autism Research at Harvard Medical School. The latest gift brings the total autism-related research funding provided by Yang and Tan to nearly $70 million.

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The center will serve as a hub that brings together the diverse expertise of scientists and clinicians working throughout Harvard University, Harvard Medical School and its affiliated hospitals.

“There is an urgent need to understand the fundamental biology of autism,” said Michael Greenberg, chair of the Department of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and the center’s inaugural faculty leader. “I strongly believe that the multidisciplinary expertise convened by this center will propel us into a new era of autism research, enhancing our understanding of the condition and yielding critical new insights into its causes. This generous gift will be transformative for the field.”

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Working under the premise that autism’s complexity demands the cross-pollination of diverse expertise across different modes of scientific inquiry, the center will encompass the efforts of basic, translational and clinical scientists from the entire Harvard ecosystem. The center will have its administrative home within the Harvard Brain Science Initiative, which brings together researchers from Harvard Medical School and its affiliated hospitals as well as from the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “Neuroscience has reached a unique inflection point. Advances such as single-cell analysis and optogenetics, coupled with an unprecedented ability to visualize molecular shifts down to the minutest level, will enable today’s researchers to tackle a disorder as dauntingly complex as autism,” said Harvard Medical School Dean George Q. Daley.

“Medical history has taught us that truly transformative therapies flow only from a clear understanding of the fundamental biology that underlies a condition,” Daley added. “This gift will allow our researchers to generate critical insights about autism and related disorders.”

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Investigators at the new Harvard University center will collaborate with peer researchers at MIT and complement efforts already underway at The Hock E. Tan and K. Lisa Yang Center for Autism Research at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, with the unique strengths of each institution converging toward a shared goal: understanding the roots of autism, explaining the condition’s behavior and evolution and translating those insights into novel approaches to treat its symptoms.

“In a short time, the Tan-Yang Center at the McGovern Institute has supported groundbreaking research we believe will change our understanding of autism,” said Robert Desimone, the director of the sibling center at MIT. “We look forward to joining forces with the new center at Harvard, to greatly accelerate the pace of autism-related research.”

“We are excited and hopeful that these sibling centers at Harvard and MIT—two powerhouses of biomedical research—will continue to collaborate in a synergistic way and bring about critical new insights to our understanding of autism,” Yang said. Yang is a former investment banker who has devoted much of her time to mental health advocacy. Tan is president and CEO of Broadcom, a global infrastructure technology company. 

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Autism-spectrum disorders—neurodevelopmental conditions that typically emerge in the first few years of life—are marked by a cluster of symptoms, impaired social interactions and compromised communication skills. Yet exactly what portion of these cases is rooted in genetic mutations and how they are influenced by environmental factors is an area of lingering uncertainty. Another key area of uncertainty is how much of autism’s fundamental features arise in the brain and what influence organs and systems outside of the brain might have.

Two of the new center’s initial areas of inquiry will address these critical gaps in knowledge.

One group of researchers will focus on understanding precisely what goes awry during critical windows in the first two years of life—a period marked by rapid brain development, great neuroplasticity and intense wiring of the brain’s circuits. This is also the typical window of autism diagnosis. The scientists will try to understand what molecular, cellular or neural-circuitry changes underlie autism-fueling processes during this stage. Identifying such critical changes can help illuminate how experiences modulate brain development in individuals with autism.

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Another group of researchers will examine the role of factors arising from organs and organ systems outside the brain that may drive autism risk. For example, the peripheral nervous system—made up of nerve cells throughout the body that act as nodes to collect and transmit signals to the brain—has emerged as a central player in the development of autism.

Heightened sensitivity to even light touch is a common feature in autism and one of the disorder’s many perplexing symptoms. Recent research from neurobiologists and geneticists at Harvard Medical School has not only identified the molecular changes that give rise to heightened touch sensitivity in autism-spectrum disorders but also points to a possible treatment for the condition.