Tag: Asperger’s

“Could My Child Have Autism?”

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Ten Signs of Possible Autism-Related Delays in 6- to 12-Month-Old Children

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Though autism is often not diagnosed until the age of three, some children begin to show signs of developmental delay before they turn a year old. While not all infants and toddlers with delays will develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD), experts point to early detection of these signs as key to capitalizing on early diagnosis and intervention, which is believed to improve developmental outcomes.

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According to Dr. Rebecca Landa, director of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders at the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Md., parents need to be empowered to identify the warning signs of ASD and other communication delays. “We want to encourage parents to become good observers of their children’s development so that they can see the earliest indicators of delays in a baby’s communication, social and motor skills,” says Dr. Landa, who also cautions that some children who develop ASD don’t show signs until after the second birthday or regress after appearing to develop typically.

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For the past decade, Dr. Landa has followed infant siblings of children with autism to identify red flags of the disorder in their earliest form. Her research has shown that diagnosis is possible in some children as young as 14 months and sparked the development of early intervention models that have been shown to improve outcomes for toddlers showing signs of ASD as young as one and two years old. Dr. Landa recommends that as parents play with their infant (6 – 12 months), they look for the following signs that have been linked to later diagnosis of ASD or other communication disorders: 1. Rarely smiles when approached by caregivers2. Rarely tries to imitate sounds and movements others make, such as smiling and laughing, during simple social exchanges3. Delayed or infrequent babbling4. Does not respond to his or her name with increasing consistency from 6 – 12 months 5. Does not gesture to communicate by 10 months6. Poor eye contact7. Seeks your attention infrequently8. Repeatedly stiffens arms, hands, legs or displays unusual body movements such as rotating the hands on the wrists, uncommon postures or other repetitive behaviors9. Does not reach up toward you when you reach to pick him or her up10. Delays in motor development, including delayed rolling over, pushing up and crawling

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“If parents suspect something is wrong with their child’s development, or that their child is losing skills, they should talk to their pediatrician or another developmental expert,” says Dr. Landa. “Don’t adopt a ‘wait and see’ perspective. We want to identify delays early in development so that intervention can begin when children’s brains are more malleable and still developing their circuitry.”

About the Kennedy Krieger Institute Internationally recognized for improving the lives of children and adolescents with disorders and injuries of the brain and spinal cord, the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, MD serves more than 16,000 individuals each year through inpatient and outpatient clinics, home and community services and school-based programs. Kennedy Krieger provides a wide range of services for children with developmental concerns mild to severe, and is home to a team of investigators who are contributing to the understanding of how disorders develop while pioneering new interventions and earlier diagnosis. For more information on Kennedy Krieger Institute, visit: www.kennedykrieger.org.

Asperger’s Syndrome

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Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com
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Credit: Deborah Mann Lake, UTHealth
Paula Ong talks about her journey with Asperger’s syndrome, which often can escape diagnosis until adulthood. A new clinic at UTHealth is reaching out to Aspies.

Paula Ong will chat away about her childhood, dropping out of college and the 13 jobs she has held in the past two decades. But ask how she “feels” about living with Asperger’s syndrome and she will give you a lengthy pause.

“Feels” is not a concept she can verbalize clearly.

“Feeling is abstract and at times broad,” she explains. “Many people with Asperger’s syndrome have a hard time grasping and verbalizing abstractness.”

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Asperger’s syndrome is a developmental disorder on the autism spectrum that causes impairment in social and communication skills. It is sometimes thought of as being a high functioning form of autism because “Aspies,” as they call themselves, are people of average or higher intellectual level.

Symptoms include repetitive routines or rituals; peculiarities in speech and language; socially and emotionally inappropriate behavior; difficulty interacting successfully with peers; problems with non-verbal communication; and uncoordinated motor movements. They also may have limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities.

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“They are high on systemizing and low on empathizing,” says Katherine Loveland, PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Medical School, which has just opened a new clinic for patients with Asperger’s. Changing Lives through Autism Spectrum Services (CLASS) will serve intellectually able people age 16 and older with Asperger’s or another autism spectrum disorder. “Systemizing is the kind of thinking we do when we organize things, solve concrete problems and think in terms of how things work as opposed to empathizing, where we are attuned to and concerned with the feelings of other people.”

It wasn’t until 1992 that Asperger’s was recognized as a distinct disorder by the World Health Organization and not until 1994 that it was included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), the American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic reference book.

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So like many people who have Asperger’s syndrome, Ong’s ability to put a name to her idiosyncrasies didn’t come until she was well into adulthood. Ong, 41, was diagnosed with Asperger’s in 2006 during treatment for a mood disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although current DSM criteria do not permit the diagnosis of ADHD together with an autism spectrum disorder, recent research including a major study at UTHealth has revealed that a majority of people with autism spectrum disorders have some form of ADHD as well.

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“We’re only now getting good at detecting Asperger’s in young people and there is a cohort of adults from when we were not so good at detecting it,” says Loveland, director of the CLASS Clinic.

“Either it’s never been diagnosed or it’s been misdiagnosed,” Loveland says. “One of the reasons it might be missed is because they are intellectually able. They are bright and verbal and good at school work, but they have continuing social problems, such as forming relationships with peers, being accepted, and dealing with emotions.”

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Ong is a good example. She is sharp with a keen sense of humor. She made As and Bs in school and excelled in history and science, the subjects that most interested her. She admits she wasn’t as good in math, which led to her decision to drop out of college, a decision her parents weren’t happy about. Her mother has degrees in journalism and business; her father is an aerospace engineer.

“My mom always suspected that I had something like autism despite what the schools told her when I was growing up,” says Ong, whose good grades disguised the severity of her disorder.

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As she grew older, Asperger’s syndrome affected Ong’s ability to sustain a career. The longest job she held was from 1997 to 2006. She began the position working in a parking booth and the limited contact with customers played to her advantage. But when parking tickets went electronic and the booths went away, she had to interact more with customers and sometimes it didn’t go well. She was written up after chasing down a car and banging on its rear window because the driver followed another car through the gate arm without paying.

“Some Asperger’s people don’t think and feel at the same time,” she says. “With some Aspies, you think and then you feel or you feel and then you think. My thinking is visual. I’m impulsive. Customer service is not my thing despite the fact I’ve been doing it for more than 20 years. The only time my experience in customer relations comes in handy is when I’m ‘translating’ for other people with Asperger’s. I have to know body language and stuff and I think I have a good idea of what others are expressing.”

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Ong has been under a doctor’s care since she was in her mid-20s for stress management and mood disorders, which includes depression.

“There are emotional issues… if people think you are odd, it affects how they treat you, and so you have a lot of stress,” Loveland says. “People on the autism spectrum have more trouble regulating their emotions. Their resources for coping with stress are less developed and they can become upset very easily. Over time, the stress and the emotional upset can lead to anxiety and depression. That’s not good for the developing brain and as a result, they often develop secondary psychopathologies.”

Specialists such as those at the UTHealth psychiatry CLASS Clinic can determine whether the problems an individual is experiencing are related to Asperger’s syndrome. Co-existing conditions such as depression and anxiety can be treated with medication or psychotherapy.

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“I really feel there is an unmet need in the community. There are people out there who are struggling and need a place to go. We want people to access the support they need,” Loveland says. “They will be able to meet people on a similar journey and know they are not alone. Group and individual training will help them develop skills that they need to feel successful in stressful situations.”

Ong has learned many skills, including using her favorite stuffed animal, Boo, to help her through stressful situations.

“I had to make presentations about Asperger’s in Corpus Christi and Fort Worth and Boo came. I didn’t know any of these people or what they would think of us. Boo takes away my fears. He handles my emotional burden,” Ong says.