Category: psychology

'Financial infidelity'

What defines it, who is at risk, and what are the consequences?

Advertisements

Romantic partners aren’t always honest about money in their relationships, but when does hiding purchases, debt and savings constitute “financial infidelity”? Research by professors at four universities, including Indiana University, defines the concept and provides a means for predicting its occurrence within relationships.

Advertisements

Love, Lies and Money: Financial Infidelity in Romantic Relationships,” in the Journal of Consumer Research, is the first systematic investigation of financial infidelity in committed romantic relationships.

The professors define financial infidelity as “engaging in any financial behavior that is expected to be disapproved of by one’s romantic partner and intentionally failing to disclose this behavior to them.” It involves both the financial “act” and the subsequent concealment.

It differs from secret consumption and merely hiding spending because it involves a broader set of financial behaviors, including seemingly “positive” actions such as saving extra income in a personal bank account.

Advertisements

“Financial infidelity has the potential to be as harmful for relationship health and longevity as sexual infidelity, as conflicts over money are also a primary reason for divorce,” said co-author Jenny Olson, assistant professor of marketing at the IU Kelley School of Business. “Given the role that finances play in the health of relationships, consumers benefit from being aware of financial infidelity and its consequences.”

Growing in popularity is financial therapy, which combines finance with emotional support to help individuals and couples think, feel and behave with money to improve their overall well-being, make logical spending decisions and face financial challenges.

Advertisements

“An understanding of financial infidelity can benefit financial services companies and advisors, clinical therapists and relationship counselors, all of whom play a role in promoting consumer well-being,” Olson said. “If couples seek professional financial advice, they must be willing to openly discuss their spending and savings habits, debts and financial goals. It is clear that financial infidelity is a barrier to effective planning, as well as to a healthy relationship.”

The researchers developed a “financial infidelity scale (FI-Scale)” using a dozen lab and field tests. Key findings included:

  • Whether the financial act is expected to elicit any level of disapproval was more important than the degree of disapproval.
  • Consumers more prone to financial infidelity exhibited a stronger preference for secretive purchase options, such as using a personal credit card versus a jointly held card, and cash over credit.
  • A preference for ambiguous packaging and shopping at inconspicuous stores.
  • A greater likelihood of concealing financial information from their partner in a mobile banking app.

Each choice is relevant to marketers. The prevalence of financial infidelity among consumers and variations along the FI-Scale affect purchasing decisions. It is important that companies be aware of certain consumer segments that may be prone to financial infidelity and thus affect their bottom lines.

Advertisements

For example, the trend of businesses going “cash-free” may affect retailers such as beauty salons and gift shops because of the use of cash to disguise purchases. Consumers strategically using cash may be less willing to make purchases only for their pleasure or personal wants.

Advertisements

Other authors on the study are Emily Garbinsky, assistant professor of marketing at the Mendoza College of Business at the University of Notre Dame; Joe J. Gladstone, assistant professor of consumer behavior at the School of Management at University College London; and Hristina Nikolova, the Diane Harkins Coughlin and Christopher J. Coughlin Sesquicentennial assistant professor at the Carroll School of Management at Boston College.

Advertisements

IU Research

Indiana University’s world-class researchers have driven innovation and creative initiatives that matter for nearly 200 years. From curing testicular cancer to collaborating with NASA to search for life on Mars, IU has earned its reputation as a world-class research institution. Supported by $680 million last year from our partners, IU researchers are building collaborations and uncovering new solutions that improve lives in Indiana and around the globe.

When should a young girl visit a gynecologist?

Advertisements

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist, girls should have their first gynecologic visit between the ages of 13 and 15 years old.

Photo by Moose Photos on Pexels.com

Parents of young teenage girls are probably thinking about how to help them navigate social media, classwork, and their social lives. However, as young teenagers begin to go through puberty, it is also important to help them understand how to manage their changing bodies. Scheduling an appointment with a pediatric and adolescent gynecologist is one way to do this.

Advertisements

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist, girls should have their first gynecologic visit between the ages of 13 and 15 years old. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology is a subspecialty of gynecology that provides comprehensive care for girls from birth to early adulthood. Pediatric and adolescent gynecologists take special care of the emotional needs of their patients and families while providing the unique care that’s necessary to foster the child’s transition from pediatrics to adult gynecology.

We spoke with pediatric gynecologist Amber Truehart, MD, about other reasons a girl should visit a gynecologist before she becomes an adult.

Advertisements

Education and Examinations

Patient education is one highlight of building a relationship with a pediatric and adolescent gynecologist. During the first visit, the doctor will help reinforce an understanding of healthy body weight and good habits for healthy bones. This is also an opportunity for young patients to learn about basic female hygiene, normal versus abnormal vaginal discharge, and puberty. Additionally, depending on the patient’s individual needs, their physical and emotional development, and medical history, the doctor may perform a basic physical exam, possibly including a breast exam.

Advertisements

Menstrual Cycle

Most girls get their first period when they are between 10 and 15 years old. So, it’s likely that a young girl is beginning to think about her period around this time. A visit with a pediatric and adolescent gynecologist will help her learn about the menstrual cycle and what is considered normal or abnormal. She can also learn how to manage her cycle, pain relief, and how to deal with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Advertisements

Vaccinations

Young girls are able to get the HPV vaccine at their gynecologist’s office. The HPV vaccine helps protect children from developing the human papillomavirus, which can lead to six types of cancers later in life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends two doses of the HPV vaccine, the first at age 11 and then six months later. If the child waits until age 15, they’ll need three doses of the vaccine.

Advertisements

Sex Talks

Let’s face it — it may be difficult for a young girl to talk to a parent about sex. Yet, it’s important that she have an avenue for these conversations. Getting her in front of an expert she trusts will help her get accurate information and learn about sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and pregnancy prevention. She can also talk with her gynecologist about safe and healthy intimate relationships, LGBTQ topics and having sex for the first time.

Advertisements

Special Assessments

For girls and young women who need complex gynecologic care, forming a doctor-patient relationship connects them with an expert who is poised to provide a full range of specialized services. Pediatric and adolescent gynecologists are trained to care for the intricate needs of children and teens who have physical or mental disabilities, congenital gynecologic abnormalities (present since birth), and underlying chronic health problems.

One Step Closer to Newborn Screening for Autism

Advertisements
Photo by Isaac Quesada

Simple blood test would identify key biomarkers

Advertisements

Because early detection of autism is linked to significantly improved outcomes, the discovery of early predictors could make all the difference in a child’s development.

Dr. Ray Bahado-Singh, a geneticist and Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology for Beaumont Health and the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine and his research team, identified key biomarkers for predicting autism in newborns.

The preliminary, collaborative study used Artificial Intelligence, a computer-based technology which scans a map of the human genome.

The team’s findings could lead to an accessible, standardized newborn screening tool which uses a simple blood test, Dr. Bahado-Singh said, enabling earlier intervention, reducing disability and improving outcomes.

The project compared DNA from 14 known cases of autism to 10 control cases and featured researchers from the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Albion College and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

Advertisements

Results appeared in the journal Brain Research.

“Compared to what is currently available, these findings provide a more direct method which could be employed earlier on, shortly after birth,” Dr. Bahado-Singh said. “It’s been shown that children who are treated earlier do better in life.”

Symptoms of autism include sensory processing difficulties, anxiety, irritability, sleep dysfunction, seizures and gastrointestinal disorders.

According to Autism Speaks, nearly half of 25-year-olds diagnosed with autism have never held a paying job. In the United States, the majority of costs associated with autism are for adult services – an estimated $175 to $196 billion a year, compared to $61 to $66 billion a year for children. 

Advertisements

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all children be screened between 18-24 months, children in large portions of the U.S. do not receive recommended clinical screenings.

Lori Warner, Ph.D., director of the Ted Lindsay Foundation HOPE Center which treats children with autism at Beaumont Children’s called the findings optimistic.

Advertisements

“We are always looking for new ways to make a difference in the lives of our patients,” Dr. Warner said. “Getting them into therapy early on is a proven way to make their path, and that of their families, easier and more meaningful.”

Dr. David Aughton, Genetics Chief for Beaumont Children’s, said he looks forward to additional, larger follow-up studies.

“Although it has been thought for many years that the underlying cause of a significant proportion of autism is likely to be nongenetic in nature, this study takes a very pragmatic and important first step toward investigating the epigenome — the inheritable changes in gene expression — and identifying those underlying nongenetic influences. The authors call for larger follow-up studies to validate their findings, and I eagerly look forward to learning the outcome of those validation studies.”

Unattainable Standards of Beauty for Today's Woman

Advertisements

Victoria Secret models shrink while average US women’s dress size increases

Photo by Tamara Bellis
Advertisements

While the average American woman’s waist circumference and dress size has increased over the past 20 years, Victoria’s Secret fashion models have become more slender, with a decrease in bust, waist, hips and dress size, though their waist to hip ratio (WHR) has remained constant.

These findings represent an ideal of beauty that continuously moves further away from the characteristics of the average American woman.

Advertisements

Quantifying female body attractiveness is complex. Perceived attractiveness is influenced by physical and nonphysical traits and is further guided by media exposure and sociocultural standards of the time. One of the more established parameters to evaluate female body attractiveness is the WHR, which measures body fat distribution. Interestingly, WHR has continued to be an ideal beauty trait that has stayed constant over time and cross-culterally.

Advertisements

In order to evaluate trends of physical body attributes, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) measured and compared Victoria’s Secret models from 1995 to 2018. The first Victoria’s Secret runway show debuted 23 years ago and since then has been viewed by millions annually, making it the most watched fashion show worldwide.

The data showed that over time, Victoria’s Secret fashion models have become thinner, with smaller busts, waist, hips and dress size, whereas their WHR remained constant. “Conversely, the average American woman’s waist circumference and dress size has increased and varies between a misses size 16 and 18,” explained corresponding author Neelam Vashi, MD, assistant professor of dermatology at BUSM.

Advertisements

According to the researchers, in parallel with this trend, the percentage of women seeking cosmetic surgical procedures has dramatically increased and may be due to the desire to achieve the ideal WHR, which is a narrow waist set against fuller hips. Buttock and lower body lift has increased by 4,295 percent and 256 percent, respectively since 2000.

Advertisements

“Our results represent a potentially changing weight ideal of beauty that is moving farther away from the characteristics of the average American woman; however, a constant idealized WHR remains intact,” added Vashi, who also is director of the Boston University Cosmetic and Laser Center at Boston Medical Center.

Seeing the new Star Wars?

Advertisements
Photo by Cade Roberts

Be careful what you wish for, study surveyed people before and after they saw The Last Jedi

Advertisements

COLUMBUS, Ohio – How much you enjoy the new Star Wars movie will depend a lot on your expectations going in, a new study suggests.

Researchers surveyed 441 people before and after they saw the last episode in the popular franchise, Star Wars VIII: The Last Jedi, released in 2017.  They wanted to see how audiences’ expectations affected their actual enjoyment of the movie.

The findings suggest that it is probably best not to go into Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker thinking you’re really going to love it or really going to hate it, said James Alex Bonus, co-author of the study and assistant professor of communication at The Ohio State University.

As you might expect, people who had the highest expectations for The Last Jedi but were disappointed in the movie had the lowest enjoyment of anyone taking the survey.

Advertisements

But what was most interesting, Bonus said, were people who expected very little from the movie but ended up feeling intensely happy after seeing the film.  Their overall enjoyment was lower than those who felt similarly joyful but who went into the movie with higher expectations.

“It wasn’t really helping people to go in with those low expectations,” Bonus said.

“The negative bias going in dragged them down and even if they were pleasantly surprised by the movie, they still didn’t like it as much as other people did.”

The study was published online this month in the Journal of Media Psychology.

The results show how much our expectations can influence our enjoyment of a movie, particularly one in a franchise like Star Wars, where audiences have a history with the characters or storyline.

“It becomes a lot less about what is in the movie and a lot more about what you expected it to be,” Bonus said.

Advertisements

In this study, online participants recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk were interviewed three weeks before the release of The Last Jedi in 2017.  They were asked to rate on a 7-point scale how happy, sad and nostalgic they thought the film would make them feel.

Three weeks later, those who had seen the movie were asked how happy, sad and nostalgic seeing the movie had made them feel. They also rated their enjoyment and appreciation of the movie.

Results showed that many people weren’t very accurate at predicting how they would react to seeing The Last Jedi, Bonus said.  That goes along with other research that shows people are bad at predicting how various experiences will make them feel.

In this study, about 55 percent of participants did not accurately predict how the movie would make them feel. Most of them didn’t get their prediction entirely wrong, such as saying the movie would make them happy when it didn’t.

But many were off in the strength of their feelings, predicting, for example, the movie would make them very happy when it made them only somewhat happy.

“We are really bad at predicting how future events will make us feel,” Bonus said.

Advertisements

One other interesting fact from the study: People who in the first survey expected that The Last Jedi would make them feel nostalgic were more likely to have seen the movie when re-interviewed three weeks later. Expectations about how happy they would feel did not predict viewing behavior.

“That shows the important role nostalgia plays for audiences of established franchises like Star Wars,” Bonus said.

Study co-authors were Nicholas Matthews, a visiting assistant professor of communication at Ohio State, and Tim Wulf, a postdoctoral researcher at LMU Munich in Germany.

#

Contact: James Alex Bonus, Bonus.1@osu.edu

Written by Jeff Grabmeier, 614-292-8457; Grabmeier.1@osu.edu

Art Museum Offers New Tools for Visitors with Sensory-Related Disorders

Advertisements
Credit: Zimmerli Art Museum/Rutgers University
Items inside sensory inclusive bags from KultureCity

Museum staff are trained to help visitors have a rewarding experience

New Brunswick, N.J. (Dec. 16, 2019) – The Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University-New Brunswick is the first art museum in New Jersey to offer specialized tools to help visitors in the autism spectrum enjoy their visit without stressful sensory overload.

Advertisements

The museum is collaborating with KultureCity, a nonprofit that has also worked with MetLife Stadium, to offer the training and materials needed to provide a more positive experience for those with autism, PTSD or other conditions that may cause sensory overload.

Free sensory inclusive bags include fidget tools (handheld objects that can be squeezed and manipulated to help focus the user’s sense of touch), cue cards that people with verbal impairments can use to communicate their needs and moods, noise-cancelling headphones and weighted lap pads to help direct the user’s feeling of their center of gravity.

“A common misperception is that autism is just a behavioral disorder, but it affects processes in our nervous system, which can create a feeling of vertigo or the sense of a lack of gravity,” said Elizabeth Torres, a Rutgers professor of psychology and director of The New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence at Rutgers–New Brunswick. “Astronauts who return from a long space mission are given weighted suits to bring back their center of gravity until they readjust. In a similar fashion, people with autism can’t always feel their own body weight. For some, the feeling is constant and very disorienting.”

Advertisements

Through the partnership with Kulture City, Zimmerli staff received training on how to recognize when a visitor may have sensory needs, such as covering their ears or flapping their hands, and how to step in and offer them sensory support.

“We’re now better prepared to assist guests with autism and other sensory sensitivities in having the most comfortable and accommodating experience possible when attending any exhibition or program at the museum,” said Thomas Sokolowski, Zimmerli Art Museum Director.

Before adopting the new sensory tools, the Zimmerli offered customized group tours to visitors with autism and related conditions.  A KultureCity app is also available for download that displays available sensory devices at Zimmerli and how they can be accessed, as well as a customized social story, that helps visitors prepare for their visit

 “People with sensory disorders and their families now have the freedom to visit at any time and have confidence they will be assisted properly if they experience sensory overload or otherwise need support,” said Amanda Potter, curator of education at the Zimmerli.

Advertisements

Potter said the sensory tools can help people of all ages. “There is also a necklace that visitors can wear that alerts staff to keep a close eye on a person so they don’t get separated from their group, which can happen not only to children but to people with dementia.”

While the sensory tools are a big first step to helping combat sensory sensitivity, Torres said museums can do more, such as partnering with autism centers and offering information cards to improve public understanding of autism-related disorders.

Advertisements

“We are having exploratory conversations with Rutgers’ Center for Adult Autism Services to find more ways to help the autism community in New Jersey, including by providing job services and creating designated quiet spaces during crowded events, such as Rutgers Day,” Potter said. “Autism services are an area for growth, so we will work to expand our services. This is just the start.” 

Advertisements

Rutgers-New Brunswick, is a leader in autism research and services, recently appointing its inaugural director of the Rutgers Center for Autism Research, Education and Services (RUCARES) and CHS-RUCARES, a clinical entity created through Rutgers’ partnership with Children’s Specialized Hospital. The university’s Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center includes an on-campus K-12 day school for children with autism. In addition, the university broke ground on a new state-of-the-art facility for the Rutger Center for Adult Autism Services, which provides employment, vocational training and other services and partners with Children’s Specialized Hospital to operate the New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence.

Combating Human Trafficking

Advertisements
Photo by Jordan Whitt

Each year, more than 40 million men, women and children are trafficked worldwide. It manifests in numerous forms and has grown into a multi-billion-dollar illegal enterprise that is difficult to detect, prosecute and examine. Risk analysis is a critical tool for combating human trafficking and is central to informing global policy recommendations and assisting with targeted local and organizational efforts. Several studies will be presented during the Addressing Human Trafficking Risk symposium at the 2019 SRA Annual Meeting at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia.

Advertisements

Many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) work to reduce human trafficking but often fail to understand the context and environment before taking action, resulting in ineffective and sometimes detrimental policies. JD Caddell, U.S. Military Academy, studied how girls were lured and trafficked by reframing the situation as a supply chain and looking at both supply and demand.

Caddell’s study, “Using system dynamics to set strategic priorities to address human trafficking,” revealed that NGO’s actions aimed solely at removing girls from the system yields few long-term benefits and creates more victims in the long run while raid and rescue operations only yields short-term gains.

Advertisements

“Many organizations use raid and rescue models because they provide “results,” in terms of girls saved, which provides validation and a mechanism for future NGO fundraising,” states Caddell. “However, our study showed that focusing on the demand side of the problem is more likely to generate large scale and sustainable progress.”

Because human trafficking is hidden, illegal and dangerous, it is difficult to gather the data needed to develop effective quantitative models and their response to interventions. Kayse Lee Maass, Ph.D., Northeastern University, has been working with survivors, law enforcement personnel and social scientists to better understand the structure and operations of trafficking networks, how they adapt and the dependencies between their cyber and social networks.

Maass’s study, “Modeling operations of human trafficking networks for effective interdiction,” provides non-profits, service providers, policy makers and other anti-trafficking stakeholders with decision support tools to effectively allocate resources to disrupt networks and ensure survivors have access to support services.

Advertisements

Similarly, Julia Coxen, University of Michigan, has approached the problem by decomposing the risks of human trafficking into the risks to public health, to security and to the community. Coxen’s study, “Risk analysis as a critical tool for human trafficking,” helps decision-makers better understand the complexities of human trafficking. The study also highlights the need for more evidence-based and quantitative risk analysis research to combat this global issue that impacts all levels of society.

** Coxen, Caddell, and Maass are available for media interviews at the 2019 SRA Annual Meeting. Please contact Natalie Judd at natalie@bigvoicecomm.com for all interview requests.

Black Teens Face Racial Discrimination Multiple Times Daily

Advertisements
Advertisements

Teens in study experience anti-black microaggressions most frequently online, according to Rutgers researcher

Black teenagers experience daily racial discrimination, most frequently online, which can lead to negative mental health effects, according to a Rutgers researcher.

The study, published in the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, examined how often black teens experience racial discrimination each day – either personally or vicariously and online or offline.

The researchers surveyed 101 black youth between ages 13 and 17 from predominantly black neighborhoods in Washington, D.C., each day for two weeks about their experiences with racial discrimination and measured changes in their depressive symptoms across that period. The teens reported more than 5,600 experiences of racial discrimination in total – an average of more than five experiences per day.

Advertisements

“This research reflects what researchers and activists have asserted for years: Black adolescents are forced to face antiblack microaggressions on a daily basis. Importantly, this study expands the research on the many ways that discrimination happens, whether it is being teased by peers, asked to speak for their racial group in class or seeing a racist post on social media,” said lead author Devin English, an assistant professor at Rutgers School of Public Health.

Advertisements

The experiences reported in the study, which ranged from teasing about physical appearance to overt discrimination, mainly occurred online and led to short-term increases in depressive symptoms. Examples of discrimination included teasing by peers about wearing their hair natural, seeing jokes about their race online and witnessing a family member or friend being treated poorly due to their race or ethnicity.

“Racial teasing is important because it is one of the most common ways adolescents communicate about race,” English noted. “Critically, young people and adults, such as teachers, often see this teasing as harmless and choose not to address it. Our results, however, show several types of racial teasing are harmful for black adolescents.”

Advertisements

“Although public discourse can indirectly or directly blame health inequities on black youth, our study provides evidence that racial discrimination in society is a fundamental cause of these health inequities,” he continued. “Knowing this, people in positions of power such as clinicians, school administrators and policy makers have a responsibility to consider discrimination as a critical aspect of the daily experience and health of black teens. Racial discrimination prevention should be a public health imperative.”

Children of abused mothers

Advertisements
Photo by Jen Theodore

50% more likely to have low IQ

Children of women who reported domestic violence in pregnancy or during the first six years of the child’s life are almost 50% more likely to have a low IQ at age 8, research finds.

In the study by University of Manchester epidemiologists, 13% of children whose mothers did not experience domestic violence had an IQ of below 90 at 8 years of age.

If their mothers experienced physical violence from their partner either in pregnancy or during the first six years of the child’s life, the figure rises to 22.8%.

Advertisements

The team led by Dr Kathryn Abel from The University of Manchester show the chance of a low IQ rises to 34.6% if the mother was repeatedly exposed to domestic violence.

That means children with mothers who repeatedly suffer domestic violence during pregnancy and the first six years of their child’s life are almost three times more likely to have a low IQ at 8 years of age, find researchers.

Low IQ is defined as an IQ score less than 90, where a normal IQ is considered to be 100.

Advertisements

The study examined the link between domestic violence – also called Intimate partner violence (IPV) – and child intelligence at 8 year’s old, using 3,997 mother child pairs from The University of Bristol’s Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

The study, funded by the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council, is published in Wellcome Open Research.

ALSPAC follows children from pregnancy, and measures emotional and physical domestic violence – also known as intimate partner violence – from pregnancy until eight years of age.

Advertisements

The intelligence of the children was measured at eight years using the Weschler standardised IQ test.

Dr Abel said: “We already know that 1 in 4 women age 16 and over in England and Wales will experience domestic violence in their lifetime and that their children are at greater risk of physical, social and behavioural problems.

“We also know that intelligence in childhood is strongly linked with doing well in adulthood, though there has been little evidence about the risk of low IQ for these children.

“While we cannot conclude that IPV causes low IQ, these findings demonstrate domestic violence has a measurable link, by mid-childhood, independent of other risk factors for low IQ.”

17.6% of the mothers in the study reported emotional violence and 6.8% reported physical violence.

Advertisements

The findings are independent of other risk factors for low IQ such as alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy, maternal depression, low maternal education and financial hardship around the child’s birth.

There is some disagreement on whether the IQ test is a complete measure of intelligence, as it only considers verbal and non-verbal intelligence

Advertisements

However, it is regarded as useful by many experts because a high IQ has been demonstrated in many countries and cultures to associate with a broad range of improved social and health outcomes.

Dr Hein Heuvelman, from The University of Bristol added: “Exposure to domestic violence is common for children in the UK and an important and often overlooked risk factor in their life chances.

Advertisements

“So knowing the extent to which these already vulnerable children are further affected is a powerful argument for more, better and earlier intervention.

“Current support for women experiencing domestic violence is inadequate in some areas and absent in others.

“Early intervention with these families protects children from harm, but it may also prioritise their future development.”

The Songwriter Is Creative – the Singer, Not So Much

Advertisements
Photo by Marie-Michèle Bouchard

Study examines how Nashville songwriters co-write with stars

COLUMBUS, Ohio — Country music songwriters must perform a careful dance when they work with famous singers who may be less talented at writing songs but bring the needed star power to attract fans – and, importantly, to get the song recorded in the first place, research suggests. 

A study of 39 successful country-music songwriters found that they use two strategies to navigate creative collaboration with more famous artists. 

Advertisements

“You have these recording artists who are being required to co-write their own songs, but maybe that’s not their skill,” said Rachel Skaggs, the study’s author and an assistant professor of arts management at The Ohio State University. 

“And then you have songwriters who are brought in to help, and to collaborate, and they have to balance this. There’s the need to make money and make a living, and the need to not have their name on a ‘bad’ song.” 

The study, published in September in the journal Social Psychology Quarterly, identified the two strategies – what Skaggs has termed “bespoke facilitation” and “the manipulation dance” – that songwriters employ to co-write songs with someone who might be a famous performer, but who might not be a great songwriter. 

“There are these strategies for when collaborators don’t have the same idea of what they want to happen, particularly if one collaborator is much higher status – a more famous artist who is important to their label,” Skaggs said. 

Advertisements

“And if you’re the songwriter in the room with them, you don’t want to undermine that collaborator. You want to identify that they have something to bring to the table, and maybe it’s their fame, but maybe it’s not creativity. So what are the ways around that? How can you can still create something that is good, but not alienate or belittle your partner?” 

Such collaborations, between famous artists and successful songwriters, are becoming more common, Skaggs said, because of economic pressures on the music industry. 

“We often think about creativity as being this very personal, independent thing, like some kind of prodigy in a room by themselves and their creative juices just flowing, but really it’s a socially constructed process,” she said. 

Advertisements

But that means that highly skilled songwriters might find themselves in a room with an artist who has a great deal of celebrity, but not much skill – or sometimes, interest – in writing a song. For the study, Skaggs interviewed songwriters who are, she said, highly successful in the country-music industry. 

The songwriters’ responses indicated that most either try to take a backseat to the singer – what Skaggs called “bespoke facilitation” – or they come in with the songs mostly written – “the manipulation dance.” 

“Bespoke facilitation is basically where the songwriter might say to the artist, ‘Oh, you’re from Ohio, so we’re going to write a song called ‘Ohio Girl,'” Skaggs said. “It’s really kind of hitting on personal branding.” 

That personal branding is important in this age of social media, Skaggs said, where fans want to feel a connection to the artists they love. 

But it could also mean that the songwriter, in writing a song that caters to the artist’s personal brand, might lose reputation points among his or her songwriting community. 

“It could be seen as fluff, right?” Skaggs said. 

Advertisements

In the case of the manipulation dance, Skaggs said, songwriters might try to introduce ideas as though they were the more famous artist’s own. In that case, Skaggs said, the songwriters generally pre-write a large portion of the song – one songwriter mentioned writing a chorus and several verses ahead of time – then casually suggest the ideas as if they originated with the artist. 

“They’ll get in the room and maybe it’s hard to corral the artist, and so they’ll say, ‘oh, what was that you wrote a minute ago, artist, that was so good?’ And they’ll introduce something they have already written,” she said. “And – it’s kind of deceptive, right? But it seems to work.” 

That strategy – the “manipulation dance” – seems to be especially effective in cases when a songwriter wants to push the artist toward something with “more artistic merit,” Skaggs said. 

“Maybe that could be a Grammy-nominated song as opposed to only a chart-topper,” she said. 

Skaggs said her findings could also be applicable in other partnerships where collaborators are mismatched in some way – an office environment, for example, or a group project in a school or volunteer organization.

Contact: Rachel Skaggs, skaggs.131@osu.edu

Written by: Laura Arenschield, arenschield.2@osu.edu