Category: Mental healt

COVID-19 Causes: Exploring the Unanswered Questions

Newswise Live Expert Panel discussion of unique angles to the COVID-19 outbreak of interest to the public and the media, including public health, testing, business and financial markets, 2020 elections, and more. 

Experts from institutions including Binghamton University, AACC, Rutgers, Cornell, University of Virginia, and more will participate in a two-part series of moderated expert panels covering a wide variety of topics, with questions prepared by Newswise editors and submissions from media attendees. 

Thursday

  1. XinQi Dong, MD, Rutgers University (Epidemiology)
  2. Zhaohui Chen, PhD, University of Virginia (Finance)
  3. Ali Khan, M.D., M.P.H, University of Nebraska Medical Center (Public Health)
  4. Valerie Reyna, PhD, Cornell University (Psychology)
  5. Tom Ewing, PhD, Virginia Tech (History)

Monday

  1. Carmen Wiley, PhD, President, American Association for Clinical Chemistry (Lab Testing)
  2. Dean Headley, PhD Wichita State (Airline Industry and Travel)
  3. Jennifer Horney, PhD, University of Delaware (Epidemiology)
  4. Dawn Bowdish PhD, McMaster University (Immunology)
  5. Daniel McKeever, PhD, Binghamton University (Finance)
  6. Dr. Jennie Kuckertz, Ph.D, from McLean Hospital (Psychology)
  7. W. Graham Carlos, MD, Indiana University (Pulmonology)

When: Thursday, March 12 at 2 PM EDT and Monday, March 16 at 2 PM EDT

Mental Well-being During Social Distancing

Managing mental well being is critical in times of uncertainty and unpredictability. One common coping mechanism is to connect in-person with friends or family because isolation can negatively impact those experiencing depression and anxiety.

Amid concerns over COVID-19, however, that recommendation conflicts with health and safety instructions on social distancing. Dr. Tonya Hansel and Dr. Maurya Glaude, licensed clinicians and researchers at the Tulane University School of Work, have the following suggestions to prevent increased at-home time from negatively affecting a person’s mental health.

  • Set up a routine and workspace dedicated to work. Use sticky notes, calendars, journals or other office supplies to help you stay organized and remember what you need to accomplish.
  • Email, message or call your colleagues or classmates. This will not only allow you to connect for mental well-being but also allow you to gain clarity and understanding about a particular assignment.
  • Recharge with fresh air, exercise and entertainment. This could include taking a midday walk or bike ride around your neighborhood, going on a nature hike or enjoying a snack on your porch. Allow more sunlight into your work space.
  • Maintain running, walking or cycling routines but bring your own water, avoid drinking out of public fountains and keep approximately 6 feet from others as recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.
  • Use the time you save from commuting to do extra things around your house, such as spring cleaning, cooking or gardening. Or create a piece of art or do craft projects with your children.
  • Feel free to allow small indulgences. Giving yourself or your children a little extra screen time is a way of practicing self-care.
  • Use technology — Facetime, Google Hangouts, Zoom or the phone — to keep up with friends and family and support one another. 
  • Access mental health resources such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. You can also call the SAMHSA Disaster Distress Hotline at 1-800-985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746.

To schedule an interview with Hansel or Glaude, contact Carrie Moulder at cmoulder@tulane.edu or Barri Bronston at bbronst@tulane.edu.

Photo by NordWood Themes on Unsplash

Photo by William Iven on Unsplash

Equal parenting rights for same-sex couples

Same-sex marriage may have been given the green (or rainbow) light in many countries around the world, but it appears there are still some entrenched attitudes in society when it comes to same-sex parenting. 

Misconceptions about the impact on children raised by same-sex parents are harmful both in a social and legal sense, says University of South Australia psychologist Dr Stephanie Webb

Same-sex couples are still struggling to gain equal rights to biological parents – particularly in the event of separation – and on a social level they want to address the fallacies about the impact of children growing up with parents of the same gender.

 “The most common myths are that children will be confused about their own sexuality, be less resilient, experience conflict, and suffer other issues as a result of growing up in a same-sex family,” Dr Webb says. 

“The reality is, children raised in a same-sex family environment are no different to children raised by heterosexual couples. In some cases, they are far more resilient, tolerant and open-minded because they have seen their parents’ own struggle for acceptance and equality.” 

To counter the misconceptions, Dr Webb and colleagues from the University of Canberra and Boise State University in the United States carried out an online survey to assess the impact of an educational campaign on people’s attitudes. 

A total of 629 people – including 74 per cent who identified as heterosexual and 23 per cent bisexual or homosexual – were split into two groups and presented with fact sheets about smoking (control group) and same-sex parenting. 

Before completing the survey, they were asked about their attitudes to same-sex marriage and same-sex parenting. 

The fact sheets dispelled many of the concerns that people had over the perceived negative developmental impacts on children with same-sex parents. 

“Our study showed a significant reduction in prejudices held after reading the fact sheets,” Dr Webb says. 

However, the sticking point is that many people believe the central purpose of marriage is to procreate. Since biological children cannot be produced by a same-sex couple, the role of marital equality is not seen as important by some. 

This creates legal issues for same-sex couples in the event of separation involving children, where a third party (a biological parent) has legal rights that supersede that of the parent whose genes are not involved.

 “Legal rights for same-sex parents are ignored by policymakers and the public alike,” Dr Webb says. “By making marriage policies inclusive, regardless of sexuality, it would validate same-sex families and protect them against discrimination.” 

Dr Webb says education is a crucial step towards achieving legal equality for same-sex families. 

Her findings have recently been published in the Australian Journal of Psychology. The survey is a follow up to a 2018 paper which examined the connection between gender role beliefs and support for same-gender family rights. 

Notes for Editors

“Attitudes toward same-sex family rights: Education facilitating progressive attitude change” was authored by Dr Stephanie Webb from the University of South Australia, Associate Professor Phil Kavanagh from the University of Canberra and Associate Professor Jill Chonody from Boise State University.

The running factor

Millions of runners around the world lace up they’re running shoes, spurred on by the psychological, health and social benefits that running delivers.

Photo by Jenny Hill on Unsplash

The birth of Parkrun in 2004 – now an international activity with more than 20 countries involved — is credited with a sharp rise in the popularity of running in the past decade, but with benefits like downsides.

Research paper by University of South Australia Adjunct Professor Jan de Jonge and his team reveals the price that runners (and society) pay when the sport becomes an obsession.

Prof de Jonge, based in the Netherlands at Eindhoven University of Technology and Utrecht University, surveyed 246 recreational runners aged 19 to 77 years to investigate how a person’s mental outlook (mental recovery and passion for running) affects their risk of running-related injuries.

Not surprisingly, the more “obsessively passionate” runners – where the sport fully controlled their life to the detriment of partners, friends and relatives – reported far more running-related injuries than those who were more “harmoniously passionate” and laid back in their approach to running.

The latter group, who are in full control of their running and integrate the sport into their life and other activities, reported faster mental recovery after a run and sustained fewer running-related injuries. They were more likely to heed the early warning signs of injuries and take both physical and mental breaks from running whenever necessary. 

Obsessively passionate runners disregarded the need to recover after training and failed to mentally detach from the sport, even when running became harmful. Their approach to running delivered short-term gains such as faster times but resulted in more running-related injuries. 

Age and gender played a part. The older runners were able to mentally detach and recover a lot faster after a run than those in the 20-34 age group – especially females – who were more prone to running-related injuries. 

“Most running-related injuries are sustained as a result of overtraining and overuse or failing to adequately recover, merely due to an obsessive passion for running,” Prof de Jonge says. 

“The majority of research focuses on the physical aspects of overtraining and lack of recovery time, but the mental aspects of running-related injuries have been ignored to date. 

“When running becomes obsessive, it leads to problems. It controls the person’s life at the expense of other people and activities and leads to more running-related injuries. This behaviour has also been reported in other sports, including professional dancing and cycling.” 

In the Netherlands, where the study was undertaken, running-related injuries costs the economy approximately €10 million a year (A$16 million) in medical costs, work absences and reduced productivity. Next to soccer, running is the Dutch sport with the highest number of injuries. 

While there are no comparative figures available for Australia, a study by Medibank Private lists running as the 4th most injury-prone sport in Australia after Aussie Rules, basketball and netball, with sporting injuries overall costing the economy more than $2 billion a year. 

Does smoking increase your risk for dementia and cognitive decline?

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Scientists from the Uniformed Services University (USU), Emory University and the University of Vermont have found that cigarette smoking is linked to increased lesions in the brain’s white matter, called white matter hyperintensities.  White matter hyperintensities, detected by MRI scan, are associated with cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. These findings may help explain the link between smoking and increased rates of dementia and other forms of cognitive decline.

The study, “Associations of cigarette smoking with gray and white matter in the UK Biobank” was published online in the journal, Neuropsychopharmacology, https://rdcu.be/b1jPS

In June 2019, the Surgeons General of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and United States, released an open letter stating that tobacco use is a threat to the health and fitness of U.S. military forces and compromises readiness. This burden also extends to care provided by the Veterans Health Administration, which spends more than $2.5 billion annually on smoking-related care.  In response, Dr. Joshua Gray, assistant professor of Medical and Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience at USU, and colleagues, examined the association between cigarette smoking and brain structure. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk for myriad health consequences including increased risk for neuropsychiatric conditions, but research on the link between smoking and brain structure is limited.

Their study was the largest of its kind, including MRI brain scans from more than 17,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, a large cohort of volunteers from across the United Kingdom. They found that smoking was associated with smaller total gray and white matter volume, increased white matter lesions, and variation in specific gray matter regions and white matter tracts. By controlling for important variables that often co-occur with smoking, such as alcohol use, this study identified distinct associations between smoking and brain structure, highlighting potential mechanisms of risk for common neuropsychiatric consequences of smoking such as depression and dementia.

“Cigarette smoking is known to elevate risk for neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression and dementia. We found that smoking is associated with multiple aspects of brain structure, in particular with increased white matter lesions. White matter lesions are linked to many of the same neuropsychiatric diseases as smoking,” said Gray.  “Although further research is needed to understand to what extent smoking is a cause or consequence of these aspects of brain structure, our findings suggest a mechanism that links smoking to increased risk for dementia, depression, and other brain diseases.”

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When chronic pain leads to depression in children

When chronic pain keeps children from being active and social, it’s no surprise that anxiety and depression can become unwelcome playmates.

Unfortunately, this scenario can become a vicious cycle—not only can pain lead to depression and anxiety, but worsening depression and anxiety can worsen pain perception.

Overall, about 5 to 20 percent of children live with chronic pain, usually in the form of musculoskeletal pain, headaches or abdominal pain associated with medical conditions such as juvenile fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, sickle cell anemia, migraines, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic cancer.

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“Parents may feel helpless and frightened as they watch their children try to cope—which can make them feel anxious and depressed, just when they need to be their child’s biggest cheerleader,” said Dr. Taranjeet Jolly, an adult and pediatric psychiatrist at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

Sound familiar? If so, don’t despair. There is help, and it starts with recognizing that a problem exists, Jolly said.

“Look for red flags that depression may be overwhelming your child. Often your first clue is a change in their everyday routine,” Jolly said. “Is their sleep time way up or down? Is there a marked change in their social interaction? Maybe they are more irritable, angry or emotional.”

Jolly suggests starting by talking with your child to get an idea of what might be going on; however, sometimes children might not be able to directly explain or describe depression. The next step would be to follow up with a pediatrician who can rule out other causes of low energy, poor sleep etc. Once it’s established that the child is suffering from depression, a referral to a child psychiatrist is recommended, depending on the complexity of the case.

“The treatment varies according to the level of severity, but something called cognitive behavioral therapy can almost always help,” Jolly said. This approach to pain management is designed to teach children and adolescents coping skills for controlling behavioral, cognitive and physiological responses to pain.

Cognitive behavioral therapy involves educating children and parents about mechanisms by which pain messages are transmitted and perceived as well as the role of the individual in these processes.

Children can be taught various pain-coping skills with guidance in applying the skills in difficult situations. Such skills might include decreasing cognitive responses to pain and relaxation strategies such as distraction, guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation—because nerve fibers can actually open or close the gate for pain channels.

Medication is another option—typically nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and sometimes an anti-depressant. Opioids are not found to be very helpful when dealing with chronic pain issues and can also lead to addiction.

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Good sleep habits, aerobic exercise, good social support, positive self-statements—such as “I am stronger than this disease”—and keeping busy are also key to restoring normal function.

Parents should take an active role in promoting their child’s re-entry into school and other social environments. The goals of therapy should focus on promoting function rather than simply alleviating pain. The more functional the patient is, the less pain they feel.

Jolly also encourages parents to work closely with their child’s multidisciplinary medical team—which may include a behavioral specialist/pain psychologist, pain physician, child psychiatrist and physical therapist—to design a plan for physical activity. “It’s a team game where the goal is to help your child stop thinking about the pain and gain as much functionality as possible.”

“As with all challenges in life, some days are better than others, but always trying is the key,” Jolly said.

Allergists Encourage Parents of Food Allergic Kids to Recognize Their Own Anxiety

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Transferring knowledge of food allergies, not fear, to children is crucial

A new article in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the scientific journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) discusses the difficulties faced by parents of children with food allergies in not transferring their own anxieties to their children.

“Food allergies are scary for both parents and children, which is why it’s important for parents to offer fact-based strategies in order to not increase their child’s concerns” says researcher Lisa Lombard, PhD, lead author of the article. “According to the allergists we interviewed, thoughtful and balanced communication and having credible information to share with your child go a long way toward helping your child with food allergies cope with their fears.”

Researchers conducted interviews with six board-certified allergists who treat a high volume of children with food allergies. The goal of the interviews was, in part, to get the allergists’ perspectives on the major factors contributing to elevated anxiety in food allergic patients.

“The allergists said the major factors contributing to elevated anxiety in kids with food allergies included fear of the epinephrine auto-injector needle, fear of anaphylaxis and apprehension about participating in oral food challenges or oral immunotherapy,” said Ruchi Gupta, MD, ACAAI member and study co-author. “They also said that although allergic reactions and epinephrine can be scary and disruptive, those experiences were often opportunities for positive coping. For example, successfully using epinephrine can bring a sense of relief after the unknown is faced.”

The allergists noted that with younger children in particular, the child might not be especially anxious, but the parents are. They also said that food challenges – where small amounts of a food a child might be allergic to are introduced in increasingly larger amounts – are an opportunity for families to lessen their fear of the unknown.

“Because children take cues from their parents, and their level of anxiety often reflects their parents’ level of anxiety, parents need to recognize how they’re communicating with their children about food allergies,” says Dr. Gupta. “The allergists interviewed told us they sometimes have parents come in for counseling without the child because doing so helps them take care of the child and the family at the same time. One allergist suggested parents use reassuring dialogue like ‘we’ll get through this’ with their kids rather than expressing their own anxiety of fear.”

Allergists are specially trained to test for, diagnose and treat food allergies. To find an allergist near you who can help create a personal plan to deal with your food allergies, and help you live your best life, use the ACAAI allergist locator.

About ACAAI

The ACAAI is a professional medical organization of more than 6,000 allergists-immunologists and allied health professionals, headquartered in Arlington Heights, Ill. The College fosters a culture of collaboration and congeniality in which its members work together and with others toward the common goals of patient care, education, advocacy and research. ACAAI allergists are board-certified physicians trained to diagnose allergies and asthma, administer immunotherapy, and provide patients with the best treatment outcomes. For more information and to find relief, visit AllergyandAsthmaRelief.org. Join us on Facebook, Pinterest and Twitter.

Borderline Personality Disorder Research and Treatment

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image and behavior, afflicts approximately 2 percent of the general population and is a leading cause of suicide. Eight to 10 percent of individuals with this disorder take their own lives.

“A common misapprehension by family, friends and often by clinicians is that patients with borderline personality disorder are not likely to commit suicide since suicidal behavior is seen as a bid for attention, misjudged as not serious. The prevalence is more than 400 times higher than in the general population,” said John Oldham, MD, MS, senior vice president and chief of staff, The Menninger Clinic, and professor of psychiatry and executive vice chair, Menninger Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine.

Despite the prevalence of BPD, its diagnosis by therapists is often impeded by the lack of awareness and frequent co-occurrence with other conditions, such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety. To help therapists diagnose this disorder and build an alliance with their BPD patients, new ways of categorizing and defining BPD are in consideration. Dr. Oldham is one of the consultants on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), expected to be published in 2011.

BPD usually manifests itself in late adolescence or early adulthood, according to Dr. Oldham.

“Patients with borderline personality disorder often have a stormy course, punctuated with episodes of high-risk behavior. The patient’s symptom profile as well as coexisting conditions, such as substance abuse, influence an individual’s course. Due to the disabling nature of the disorder, accompanied by high levels of emotional pain and distress, patients generally seek treatment and if they adhere to treatment and overcome high-risk behavior, they may ultimately do quite well.”

Officially recognized in 1980 by the psychiatric community, borderline personality disorder is at least two decades behind in research treatment options and education compared to other serious mental illnesses. Congressional Resolution, H. Res. 1005, is awaiting final action to designate May as Borderline Personality Disorder Awareness Month. This resolution acknowledges the pressing burden of those afflicted with borderline personality disorder, confirms the widespread prevalence of this disorder and seeks to spread awareness of this under-recognized and often misunderstood mental illness.

This Menninger Continuing Education Conference, offering continuing education credit to health professionals, is co-sponsored by the National Education Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder (NEA-BPD) and The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) Metropolitan Houston. Topics and speakers include:

  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Overview of Recent Research Findings by John M. Oldham, MD, MS
  • Mentalizing in the Treatment of BPD by Jon G. Allen, PhD
  • Evidence-Based Treatment of BPD by Glen O. Gabbard, MD
  • Borderline Personality as a Self-Other Representational Disturbance by Donna S. Bender, PhD
  • New Developments in the Neurobiology of BPD by Larry J. Siever, MD
  • Borderline Personality Disorder in DSM-V by Andrew E. Skodal, MD

For conference information, see http://www.menningerclinic.com/calendar/BorderlineConf.pdf or call Menninger Education at 713-275-5060. The conference schedule and online registration form is also accessible at: MenningerClinic.com, Calendar, Conferences & Forums; NEABPD.org and NAMI.org, NAMI Metropolitan Houston Website.

The Menninger Clinic is an international specialty psychiatric center, providing treatment, research and education. Founded in 1925 in Kansas, Menninger relocated to Houston in 2003 and is affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital. For 17 consecutive years, Menninger has been named among the leading psychiatric hospitals in U.S.News & World Report‘s annual ranking of America’s Best Hospitals

How much is too much caffeine🕉

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A video of Dr. Ayala discussing caffeine’s impact on the heart is available here:

https://www.wbaltv.com/article/the-woman-s-doctor-how-much-is-too-much-caffeine/30824815

Tomas H. Ayala, M.D., FACC, is a general cardiologist in Baltimore, Maryland. He sees patients at The Heart Center at Reisterstown, a satellite location of The Heart Center at Mercy. Dr. Ayala provides a range of care to diagnose and treat cardiovascular disease. He has an interest in cardiac imaging, valvular heart disease and geriatric cardiology.

Dr. Tomas Ayala has provided adults of all ages comprehensive cardiology care for more than 15 years. With Fellowship training in Cardiology, Dr. Ayala offers personalized care, concentrating on the best treatment plans to improve patient health and quality of life. He treats patients with congestive heart failure, coronary artery diseasearrhythmiashypertension and valvular heart disease, among other heart conditions.

He is Board Certified in Cardiovascular Disease, Nuclear Cardiology and Internal Medicine. Dr. Ayala is a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology as well as a member of the American Society of Echocardiography and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

Dr. Tomas Ayala is committed to providing focused care for his patients. He is currently a Testamur of the ASCeXAM in adult Echocardiology, signifying his achievement in passing the Board exam and progressing to the “Board Eligible” stage. Echocardiography Board Certification will place Dr. Ayala among a group of distinguished experts in cardiovascular ultrasound interpretation and enable him to offer enhanced patient care for cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Ayala works with his patients to help them prevent and manage heart disease and maintain proper heart health. He places emphasis on patient education and understanding of risk factors and medical conditions, encouraging patients to take an active role in their care.

Dr. Tomas Ayala uses comprehensive testing and diagnostic services, including transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) and nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging, to evaluate heart blood flow, pumping function and anatomy in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiac conditions.

The Four Types of Love (Some Are Healthy, Some Are Not)💖

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As Valentine’s Day approaches, think about how you use the word “love” in your life. You love your significant other, your kids, your friends and your siblings in different ways. Dr. Kirtly Parker Jones talks about the research behind these types of affection and why our loved ones make us crazy (in good ways and bad ways).

Below is a transcript from an interview with Dr. Kirtly Parker Jones, University of Utah Health.

Love. It’s a word that some of us use a lot. “I love that color on you.” “I just love pizza.” “I love, love, love you” to our little grandchildren. Some of us never feel comfortable using the word out loud. Philosophers, Theologians and now neuroscientists and clinicians think a lot about love. We use this word for so many emotions.

Maybe as we approach Valentine’s Day we should think a little bit about the different kinds of love. Some good for you and good for your health and some maybe not so much. The Western tradition from the Greeks distinguishes four types of love and has a Greek word for all of them. There are many sources that define many other kinds of love but four is a pretty manageable number.

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Eros: erotic, passionate love

We might as well get that one out of the way first. Eros is erotic or sexual or passionate love. It’s often all about need and it’s more about the person who’s feeling sexually attractive than it is about the person who is the focus of that love or thing that is the focus of that love. It is addicting. It can cause great joy and great sorrow. It isn’t always good for you. More hearts are broken on Valentine’s Day due to the unfulfillment of erotic love.

Philia: love of friends and equals

It can be the love between lovers when they’ve been together for a long time and are not so hot and bothered anymore. It’s also called brotherly love as in the city of Philadelphia. The city of brotherly love. Of course, it could be sisterly love and it is the accepting love of good friendship. This is the love that is good for your health. The touch of a loved one. The philia touch lowers blood pressure. People in loving relationships feel your love have few doctor visits, shorter hospital visits, have less pain, and have more positive emotions. All of these positive consequences of philia love, loving friendships make us more resilient when hard times come.

Storge: love of parents for children

This kind of love is what mothers know best but isn’t talked about too much when we talk about love. It is the love of parents for children. It is described as the most natural of loves. Natural in that it’s present without corrosion. It’s emoted because we can’t help ourselves and it pays the least attention as to whether the person is worthy of love.

It’s often transient behaviors that wouldn’t be tolerated in philia love. For example, women can continue to love their children despite truly awful behaviors. Behaviors they wouldn’t tolerate in their girlfriends or their spouses. It seems to come unbidden in the care of a newborn and it grows to allow us to love our children despite their behaviors. Thank goodness for that. In many ways it’s probably a genetically programmed and hard wired love compared to the affectionate love, philia, which is maybe not so hot wired.

Agape: love of mankind

The love modeled on the love of the Christian God for men and the love of man for God. It’s the love that is given whether or not it’s returned. It’s the love without any self benefit. In the Buddhist tradition it is the central foundation of loving kindness for all mankind. This kind of love is important in the process of forgiveness. Forgiveness is important to your health, because the inability to forgive is associated with anger and a number of health outcomes that are not very good. It is love that sets a very hard bar but it may be at the foundation for happiness and contentment.

So, if you are planning something for Valentines Day for the focus of your erotic love, I hope you get it. The good news for your budget is that humans can usually only have erotic love for one person at a time. So it means one card. Good for you.

If you’re planning cards for your philia loves I hope that you have quite a few and they make you smile and that you get a bunch back.

If you’re planning cards for you storge loves your probably just planning on some heart shaped cookies for your kids.

If you planning cards for your agape loves, good luck on that one. You will break the budget and the postal service to send a card to all mankind. But we can take a little moment on Valentine’s Day to send out a little thought message of love and peace to the world.

This interview was originally broadcast by The Scope Radio. The Scope Radio, from University of Utah Health, highlights expert health advice and research you can use for a happier and healthier life.