Category: medicine

Happy wife, Happy life

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A happy partner leads to a healthier future

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Science now supports the saying, “happy wife, happy life.” Michigan State University research found that those who are optimistic contribute to the health of their partners, staving off the risk factors leading to Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and cognitive decline as they grow old together. 

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“We spend a lot of time with our partners,” said William Chopik, assistant professor of psychology and co-author of the study. “They might encourage us to exercise, eat healthier or remind us to take our medicine. When your partner is optimistic and healthy, it can translate to similar outcomes in your own life. You actually do experience a rosier future by living longer and staving off cognitive illnesses. 

An optimistic partner may encourage eating a salad or work out together to develop healthier lifestyles. For example, if you quit smoking or start exercising, your partner is close to following suit within a few weeks and months. 

“We found that when you look at the risk factors for what predicts things like Alzheimer’s disease or dementia, a lot of them are things like living a healthy lifestyle,” Chopik said. “Maintaining a healthy weight and physical activity are large predictors. There are some physiological markers as well. It looks like people who are married to optimists tend to score better on all of those metrics.” 

The study

Published in the Journal of Personality and co-authored by MSU graduate student Jeewon Oh and Eric Kim, a research scientist in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, followed nearly 4,500 heterosexual couples from the Health and Retirement Study for up to eight years. The researchers found a potential link between being married to an optimistic person and preventing the onset of cognitive decline, thanks to a healthier environment at home. 

“There’s a sense where optimists lead by example, and their partners follow their lead,” Chopik said. “While there’s some research on people being jealous of their partner’s good qualities or on having bad reactions to someone trying to control you, it is balanced with other research that shows being optimistic is associated with perceiving your relationship in a positive light.” 

The research also indicated that when couples recall shared experiences together, richer details from the memories emerge. A recent example, Chopik explained, was Google’s tearjerker Super Bowl ad, “Loretta,” in which an elderly man uses his Google Assistant to help him remember details about his late wife. 

“The things he was recollecting were positive things about his partner,” Chopik said. “There is science behind the Google ad. Part of the types of memories being recalled were positive aspects of their relationship and personalities.” 

With all of its benefits, is optimism something that can be prescribed? While there is a heritable component to optimism, Chopik says there is some evidence to suggest that it’s a trainable quality. 

“There are studies that show people have the power to change their personalities, as long as they engage in things that make them change,” Chopik said. “Part of it is wanting to change. There are also intervention programs that suggest you can build up optimism.” 

Across the board, everyone benefits from a healthy dose of optimism from their partner. For the glass-is-half-empty people, a partner can still quench their thirst. For the glass-is-half-full people? Their cup runneth over. 

Michigan State University has been working to advance the common good in uncommon ways for 160 years. One of the top research universities in the world, MSU focuses its vast resources on creating solutions to some of the world’s most pressing challenges, while providing life-changing opportunities to a diverse and inclusive academic community through more than 200 programs of study in 17 degree-granting colleges.

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Pregnant Women with Very High Blood Pressure Face Greater Heart Disease Risk😔

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Women with preeclampsia are four times more likely to suffer a heart attack or cardiovascular death, Rutgers study finds

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Women with high blood pressure in their first pregnancy have a greater risk of heart attack or cardiovascular death, according to a Rutgers study. 

The study is published in the Journal of Women’s Health

Approximately 2 to 8 percent of pregnant women worldwide are diagnosed with preeclampsia, a complication characterized by high blood pressure that usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy in women whose blood pressure had been normal. Doctors haven’t identified a single cause, but it is thought to be related to insufficiently formed placental blood vessels. Preeclampsia is also the cause of 15 percent of premature births in the U.S.

The researchers analyzed cardiovascular disease in 6,360 women, age 18 to 54, who were pregnant for the first time and diagnosed with preeclampsia in New Jersey hospitals from 1999 to 2013 and compared them to pregnant women without preeclampsia. They found that those with the condition were four times more likely to suffer a heart attack or cardiovascular death and more than two times more likely to die from other causes during the 15-year study period. 

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“Women who were diagnosed with preeclampsia tended also to have a history of chronic high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and kidney disease and other medical conditions,” said lead author Mary  Downes Gastrich, an associate professor at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and a member of the Cardiovascular Institute of New Jersey.

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Gastrich said the study suggests that all women be screened for preeclampsia throughout their pregnancy and that treatment be given to those with preeclampsia within five years after birth. “Medication such as low-dose aspirin also may be effective, according to one study, in bringing down blood pressure as early as the second trimester​​,” she said. 

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 Other Rutgers authors include Stavros Zinonos, Gloria Bachmann, Nora M. Cosgrove, Javier Cabrera, Jerry Q. Cheng and John B. Kostis.

Schizophrenia Is A Disease, Not An Extreme of Normal Variation

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“Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and many other types of mental illness, are diseases of the brain and should be treated and studied as such,” say Johns Hopkins researchers.

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Does this statement seem a bit obvious and not exactly rocket science? Although it may, this isn’t how the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) — the psychiatry wing of the National Institutes of Health — currently views severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and dementia. The NIMH is the largest federal agency that provides research funding on mental disorders.

For the past decade, the NIMH has used a system called Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) to describe all mental illnesses as dimensions of psychological norms that fall along extremes of too much or too little of common personality traits. For example, everyone has minor fears of things such as spiders, heights or snakes. But, having very strong or unmanageable fears might constitute an anxiety disorder.

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While this way of thinking may make sense for anxiety, Johns Hopkins physicians argue that for the most severe of mental disorders — such as autism, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder — the approach will lead clinicians and scientists in the wrong direction. These conditions aren’t the result of too much or too little of a normal human trait. Rather they represent a clear-cut shift outside the typical dimensions of human experience.

In every other field of medicine, researchers use animal models of diseases based on genes and their interactions that contribute to disease risk. However, the current NIMH approach directs psychiatric researchers to focus on normal variation. Research on animal models with genetic variations that increase the risk of diseases often doesn’t get funded, they say.

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The researchers lay out their thoughts in two commentaries, both published in Molecular Neuropsychiatry, one published in 2018 and the other in the October 2019 issue.

In their first commentary, the researchers argue that the NIMH approach of thinking of mental illness in dimensional terms is like regressing back to Galen’s Humors of the second century, when all illnesses were attributed to the imbalance of one of the four humors: yellow bile, black bile, blood and phlegm. Then, they argue that a biomedical approach using the tools of genetics, neuroscience and imaging can lead to rational targets for therapies. The second commentary is a point-by-point critique of the NIMH system and its flaws. They say that the RDoC system moves away from the proven power of biomedical research, which explores the causes of diseases and their effects on human biology. They add that the RDoC system doesn’t appropriately address the natural history or progression of a disease.

“Using the RDoC system hasn’t advanced the field of psychiatry, diverts attention from achieving an understanding of underlying mechanisms and ultimately delays discovering rational treatments for these diseases,” says author Christopher A. Ross, M.D., Ph.D., professor of psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience and pharmacology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

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This change in how the NIMH approaches mental illnesses occurred about a decade ago. Leadership at the NIMH initiated the RDoC system with the best motives in mind, in order to encourage neuroscience research to study how cells communicate with one another in the brain. However, this change to the RDoC system happened before modern genetic and other techniques pointed toward specific causes of major mental illnesses.

“No other NIH institute has adopted a scheme so discordant from modern biomedical research practice,” says Ross.

“The NIMH strategy makes psychiatry — and especially psychiatric research — seem like a strange and esoteric endeavor, not part of mainstream biomedicine, with the consequence of stigmatizing the entire discipline, including its patients,” says co-author Russell Margolis, M.D., a professor of psychiatry and neurology at Johns Hopkins.

Now that investigators have identified some genetic and environmental causes, and are beginning to reveal molecular mechanisms behind these disorders, the researchers say that it’s time for the NIMH to readjust their system. These changes should allow for conditions such as autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to be researched and treated as diseases — and not as fringe versions of normal variation. Moving toward a system that values the biomedical approach, comparable with the other NIH institutes, they say, would guide the NIMH to support studies on mechanisms of disease, so researchers can design more targeted therapies for those with different forms of these illnesses. As psychiatric genetics is complex, so are the genetics of many common medical diseases, such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, in other fields, scientists successfully use modern biomedical technique to address complex diseases. The authors contend that the field of psychiatry and patients with severe mental diseases deserve no less.

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Ross received research support from JNJ/Janssen, Teva, Raptor/Horizon, Vaccinex, uniQure and Roche/Genentech unrelated to these publications, and has consulted for Teva, Sage, uniQure, Roche/Ionis, Azevan, Annexon and the Healthcare Services Group. Margolis received grant support from Teva unrelated to the publications discussed here.

Too Much of a Good Thing? 😜

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That Italian restaurant with the excellent linguini that you’ve indulged in so often you can no longer face a meal there.

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The conference with brilliant but endless keynotes: You start the day full of enthusiasm, but by the fourth breakout you’re flagging. The action movie that has you on the edge of your seat for so long and with so little down time that your brain goes numb long before your legs do.

It’s called satiation. And once you pass the satiation point, consuming more — even of something you love — means enjoying it less. Your senses become clogged by so much of one stimulus; they become tired and don’t process your enjoyment.

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Of course, feeling satiated is a temporary state. Taking a break from the restaurant or skipping a few of the keynotes will leave you ready for more in due course.

So how do you know where the satiation point will kick in? And how long does it take to rebuild your appetite for more?

Shedding rigorous scientific light on all of this is new research by Darden Professor Manel Baucells.

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EVERYTHING IN MODERATION?

Together with Lin Zhao of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Baucells has created a mathematical model that charts the satiation state and the time that it takes for satiation to “decay” — in other words, the optimal amount of rest from an experience or activity that is needed in order for enjoyment to resume.  

“We know from research — and common sense — that the old axiom is true: Everything is better in moderation,” says Baucells. “You tire of something if you’re overexposed to it. If you go to a concert, you’re likely to enjoy the first songs more than those that come in the middle, unless the playlist has been carefully calibrated to avoid satiation. We wanted to calculate where satiation kicks in and how it impacts enjoyment. We also wanted to understand how much time needs to elapse until satiation subsides and we start to enjoy something again.”

Understanding these dynamics, says Baucells, can help optimize the design of experiences and activities.

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THE SATIATION MODEL

Baucells and Zhao’s satiation model plots three core dimensions: the consumption rate of an experience or activity or product, the satiation level, and the moment-by-moment enjoyment produced by that experience or activity or product. This third dimension is called “instant utility.”

The model is novel in that it is the first to introduce a “de-satiation motive,” charting the time it takes for satiation to decay — and enjoyment rise again.

The satiation model captures three key ideas:

  • The more frequently we consume something, the faster our satiation rate increases.
  • Enjoyment levels go down as satiation levels go up.
  • Resting between experiences decreases satiation and increases the enjoyment of the experiences that come after the break.

The paper also offers a “proof of concept” on how to measure, based on reports from individuals, specific parameters of the model such as how fast the satiation level decays during rest. Such measurements would allow us to improve the design of experiences, make better predictions on how much individuals would like a particular design, or monitor preferences from beginning to end of a time period.

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THE SCIENCE IN LEAVING THE BEST FOR LAST

“Right now, a combination of intuition and experience determine how experiential services are design in many spheres of business,” says Baucells. “Intuitively we know when we go to a show or a concert that the best is generally left for last. But if you ask organizers or producers why that is, you’ll likely get a host of different reasons.”

The satiation model brings greater coherence to our understanding of the dynamics at play — a logical approach that can serve to either support or debunk gut feeling.

The model shows that satiation peaks and falls over a period of time. A high-low-high pattern works best for maximum satisfaction: Ideally, we’d still start an experience with a bang, then take things down a notch, then end with a grand finale. Having satiation peak right at the end of an experience or activity won’t penalize that activity because, simply put, nothing comes after the end. There is no further chance for satiation to increase, as the final peak is followed by an indefinite period of decay or rest. Moreover, ending on the highest note leaves one with a positive memory of the experience — an important source of consumer satisfaction.

Baucells’ model also points to how to optimize rests or breaks between activities (e.g., between songs in a concert), or to use variety to minimize satiation and optimize enjoyment.

“It’s the scientific explanation behind why we need to hear acoustic songs in a rock concert, or have our high-energy action interspersed with quieter scenes in a movie.”

So no matter how much you like kayaking or golfing, booking a six-day vacation centered around the activity will not be as fun as booking two separate three-day vacations. And mixing things up with, say, a horseback ride, will do wonders for how much more you appreciate the next golf course.

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IMPLICATIONS

Decision-makers would do well to factor this understanding into business models, loyalty programs and marketing efforts, say the researchers.

Managing satiation more scientifically has benefits that span any number of sectors.

Restaurant mangers might want to think about reducing portion size in order to boost the sale of desserts. Customer loyalty efforts might be well served both by prioritising innovation and variety of offers, and by allowing greater periods of time to elapse between promotions.

There are key insights here that can even inform the debate on income inequality, Baucells says.

“The satiation model shows us that people tire of something if they do it too frequently. This can be just as easily applied to high-wealth individuals and spending habits,” says Baucells. “The model tells us that people cannot efficiently spend money on consumption indefinitely, and that has implications for inequality or philanthropy. Individuals with large wealth will eventually reach their satiation points in consumption, and their capacity to make any significant increase in enjoyment by spending more will eventually plateau. Past this point, philanthropy may make more sense.”

Coronavirus

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Two New Rapid Tests Could Play Key Role in Efforts to Contain Growing Epidemic

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WASHINGTON – Breaking research in AACC’s Clinical Chemistry journal shows that two new tests accurately diagnose coronavirus infection in about 1 hour. These tests could play a critical role in halting this deadly outbreak by enabling healthcare workers to isolate and treat patients much faster than is currently possible. 

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Since the coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China last month, this pneumonia-like illness has spread at an alarming rate. Just yesterday, the World Health Organization officially declared the outbreak a public health emergency, and as of today, the virus has infected nearly 10,000 people in China, with the death toll soaring to more than 200. More cases continue to appear around the globe, with six coronavirus cases already confirmed in the U.S. In order to contain this pandemic, healthcare workers need to quickly and accurately identify new coronavirus cases so that patients get crucial medical care and transmission can be halted. However, the Chinese labs that can test for coronavirus are currently overwhelmed. There are reports of hospitals in Wuhan having to deny testing for severely ill patients, who are then also denied full-time admission because beds need to be saved for those with confirmed diagnoses. Partly as a result of these testing difficulties, researchers estimate that only 5.1% of coronavirus cases in Wuhan have actually been caught. 

A team of researchers led by Leo L.M. Poon, DPhil, of the University of Hong Kong has developed two rapid tests for the coronavirus that could break this diagnostic bottleneck. Using a technology known as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the tests detect two gene regions that are only found in the Wuhan coronavirus (officially known as 2019-novel-coronavirus) and in other closely related coronaviruses such as SARS. The two gene regions detected by the tests are known as ORF1b and N. Significantly, both tests also take only about 1 hour and 15 minutes to run. This fast turnaround time could enable Chinese labs to greatly increase patient access to coronavirus testing. 

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To evaluate the performance of these tests, Poon’s team first confirmed that the tests accurately identify genetic material extracted from cells infected with the SARS coronavirus. The researchers also showed that the tests return negative results for samples containing genetic material from other respiratory viruses, demonstrating that the tests accurately differentiate coronavirus infection from other causes of pneumonia. Lastly, Poon’s team used the tests to analyze sputum and throat swab samples from two patients infected with the 2019-novel-coronavirus. The tests correctly gave positive results for both patients. 

“Signs of [coronavirus] infection are highly non-specific and these include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, [shortness of breath], and viral pneumonia,” said Poon. “Thus, diagnostic tests specific for this infection are urgently needed for confirming suspected cases, screening patients, and conducting virus surveillance. The established assays [in this study] can achieve a rapid detection of 2019-novel-coronavirus in human samples, thereby allowing early identification of patients.”

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About AACC

Dedicated to achieving better health through laboratory medicine, AACC brings together more than 50,000 clinical laboratory professionals, physicians, research scientists, and business leaders from around the world focused on clinical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, mass spectrometry, translational medicine, lab management, and other areas of progressing laboratory science. Since 1948, AACC has worked to advance the common interests of the field, providing programs that advance scientific collaboration, knowledge, expertise, and innovation. For more information, visit www.aacc.org

Clinical Chemistry (clinchem.org) is the leading international journal of laboratory medicine, featuring nearly 400 peer-reviewed studies every year that help patients get accurate diagnoses and essential care. This vital research is advancing areas of healthcare ranging from genetic testing and drug monitoring to pediatrics and appropriate test utilization. 

Autism Diagnosis Test Needs Improvement

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Study finds inconsistencies in a broadly used autism test

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Rutgers researchers have found that a test widely used to diagnose whether children have autism is less reliable than previously assumed.

The study is published in the journal Neural Computation.

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The standardized test, known as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), assesses communication skills, social interaction and play for children who may have autism or other developmental disorders.

The researchers digitized the test by attaching wearable technology, like an Apple Watch, to two clinicians and 52 children who came in four times and took two different versions of the test. 

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When researchers looked at the scores of the entire cohort, they found they did not distribute normally – which could mean a chance of false positives inflating the prevalence of autism, among other implications.

The results showed that switching clinicians may change a child’s scores and consequently influences the diagnosis. The researchers found similar results when they analyzed open-access data of 1,324 people ages 5 to 65, said Elizabeth Torres, associate professor of psychology in Rutgers’ School of Arts and Sciences, and director of The New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence.

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“The ADOS test informs and steers much of the science of autism, and it has done great work thus far,” said Torres, whose expertise has brought emerging computer science technology to autism. “However, social interactions are much too complex and fast to be captured by the naked eye, particularly when the grader is biased to look for specific signs and to expect specific behaviors.”

The researchers suggest combining clinical observations with data from wearable biosensors, such as smartwatches, smartphones and other off-the-shelf technology.

By doing so, they argue, researchers may make data collection less invasive, lower the rate of false positives by using empirically derived statistics rather than assumed models, shorten the time to diagnosis, and make diagnoses more reliable, and more objective for all clinicians.

Torres said autism researchers should aim for tests that capture the accelerated rate of change of neurodevelopment to help develop treatments that slow down the aging of the nervous system.

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“Autism affects one out of 34 children in New Jersey,” she said. “Reliance on observational tests that do not tackle the neurological conditions of the child from an early age could be dangerous. Clinical tests score a child based on expected aspects of behaviors. These data are useful, but subtle, spontaneous aspects of natural behaviors, which are more variable and less predictable, remain hidden. These hidden aspects of behavior may hold important keys for personalized treatments, like protecting nerve cells against damage, or impairment, which could delay or altogether stop progression.”

The study was co-authored by Richa Rai, a graduate student in psychology at Rutgers University, Sejal Mistry, a former Rutgers Biomathematics student now at the University of Utah Medical School, and Brenda Gupta from Montclair State University.

Devastating genetic disorder

Helping the world understand, detect and treat a devastating genetic disorder

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Fragile X syndrome may be a debilitating genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects people worldwide, but many doctors don’t know anything about it, including have the resources to properly diagnose or treat it.

The UC Davis MIND Institute is home to many of the world’s leading experts in fragile X syndrome and works globally to teach clinicians and families on the way to identify, test and supply look after those born with the disorder, often related to autism.

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This multimedia story documents one such outreach effort in Serbia and therefore the lives of the Cvijetic family and their look for help for his or her 6-year-old son, Demetrije. Diagnosed with fragile X syndrome through the efforts of a MIND Institute-trained physician, the affectionate boy has never attended school, cannot speak or feed himself with a spoon or fork. His parents desperately hope he can someday have a productive life.

MIND Institute experts in fragile X syndrome are available for media interviews about their international work and ongoing research. They include:

Randi Hagerman, a pediatrician and professor at UC Davis, and one among the world’s leading experts on fragile X syndrome and related conditions and their treatment.

Leonard Abbeduto, a psychologist and director of the UC Davis MIND Institute who is internationally renowned for his work on the event and use of language in individuals with intellectual disabilities, including those with fragile X syndrome.

David Hessl, a toddler psychotherapist and professor at UC Davis whose expertise include the cognitive, emotional and behavioral evaluation of youngsters with fragile X syndrome.

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The MIND Institute will next bring their expertise to Cartagena, Colombia for the Pan-American Conference of Neurodevelopment: Autism and Fragile X Syndrome, April 16-17 then to Quito, Ecuador for an additional conference April 20-21.

A Calming Space

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Children’s of Alabama Expands Sensory Pathway For Patients With Sensory Sensitivities

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When Sladen Fisher got a bad cut on his earlobe at school, his mother, Jennifer Fisher, worried the sights and sounds of Children’s of Alabama’s Emergency Department would be too stressful for her son. That’s because Sladen has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sensory processing disorder.

At the time of the Sladen’s visit, Children’s of Alabama had just launched its Sensory Pathway, designed for patients with conditions such as ADHD, autism and Down syndrome. In 2016, the pathway began as a pilot project in the Emergency Department; however, it has since expanded to One Day Surgery and several inpatient units at Children’s of Alabama, including the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary Care Unit and Special Care Unit. Future plans include expansion to ancillary and outpatient services.

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The pathway made a lasting impact on Sladen. Back at school a few weeks later, he presented a report about someone he considers a hero. He chose Children’s of Alabama Child Life Specialist Shelby Smith, who stayed by his side during his visit, explained his treatment in terms he understood and provided him with an iPad and fidget toys for distraction and comfort.

“In his mind, she was a hero, someone who went above and beyond to help him,” Jennifer said. She made what could have been an incredibly difficult situation so amazing. She really was our hero.”The pathway has been equally impactful on Children’s of Alabama, said Michele Kong, M.D. associate professor in pediatric critical care at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Department of Pediatrics.

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“The pathway has been so empowering for our providers,” said Kong, who serves on the Sensory Pathway Task Force, also comprised of nurses, informatics specialists and child life specialists. Unit by unit, the task force provides education and training and is developing an online training module. The task force is also working with information technology specialists to flag patients with sensory sensitivities from the point of admission.

“We tailor education and training to suit each unit’s needs because each unit’s workflow and culture is different,” Kong said. “The success of the pathway is a direct reflection of our providers’ passion to learn. There’s buy-in from our providers because they know it’s good for their patients.”

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As a parent, Kong, too, knows how jarring a hospital visit can be for a child with sensory sensitivities. Her oldest son, Abram, was diagnosed with autism at age 4. The diagnosis inspired Kong and her husband, Julian Maha, M.D., to found KultureCity®, a nonprofit that works to “create acceptance and inclusion for all individuals with unique abilities,” according to its mission statement. In 2019, KultureCity was ranked fourth on Fast Company magazine’s list of the most innovative companies in the world. KultureCity not only partners with local organizations in Birmingham, but also with national organizations such as the NBA and NFL.

“We never imagined it would reach this scale,” Kong said. “It impressed on us that there’s a lot of power when a collective group of people have the same belief and passion for change.”

HPV Vaccine: 7 Myths and Facts You Need to Know

Nuvance Health physician dispels common misconceptions about the HPV vaccine and discusses its role in protecting against HPV-related diseases

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January is Cervical Health Awareness Month

By Dr. Linus Chuang, Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nuvance Health

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Summary:

  • A vaccine is available to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and can cause diseases such as genital warts and cancer.
  • The HPV vaccine now protects against nine strains of HPV. Research shows that the HPV vaccine is safe and effective.
  • The HPV vaccine is approved for men and women between the ages of 9 to 45. The HPV vaccine can protect adults from HPV-related diseases, however it provides the most protection when it is given in childhood before someone becomes sexually active.
  • Parents should talk with their child’s pediatrician about the HPV vaccine. Adult men should ask their primary care provider about the HPV vaccine, and adult women should speak with their gynecologist.
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In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Gardasil, a vaccine to prevent diseases such as cancer and genital warts that are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Within the last five years, improvements have been made to the HPV vaccine and the recommended age range for administration has been expanded, resulting in more robust HPV protection being available to more people.

Although the HPV vaccine has proven to be highly effective at preventing HPV-related diseases and cancers, misconceptions still exist about how it works, who should receive it, and whether it is safe. Here are seven myths about HPV and the HPV vaccine and also the facts you need to know.

Myth #1: I/my child won’t contract HPV.
Fact: HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection.

Most sexually active people will contract HPV. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly 80 million people — or 1 in 4 Americans — are infected with HPV. The CDC further estimates that about 14 million people, including teens, will contract a new HPV infection each year.

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Myth #2: Having HPV doesn’t mean I/my child will get cancer.
Fact: Having HPV increases cancer risk — and HPV-related cancers are on the rise.

According to the CDC, more than 43,000 people developed HPV-associated cancer in 2015, up from 30,000 people in 1999. The HPV vaccine can prevent most types of HPV-related cancers, including anal, cervical, penile, throat, and vaginal cancers.

Myth #3: The HPV vaccine is only for women.
Fact: Men and women should get the HPV vaccine.

HPV affects both men and women. HPV can cause genital warts and anal and oral cancers in both men and women. It can also cause cervical or vaginal cancers in women and penile cancers in men. Because HPV often does not cause symptoms right away and many people are unaware that they have it, it can easily and unknowingly be transmitted to a sex partner.

Myth #4: The HPV vaccine isn’t effective.
Fact: The newest vaccine is effective against nine strains of HPV.

When Gardasil, the original HPV vaccine, was first approved by the FDA in 2006, it only protected against four types of HPV. In 2014, the FDA approved a new vaccine called Gardasil 9 that protects against the same four types of HPV, plus an additional five types.

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Research also shows that the HPV vaccine provided nearly 100 percent protection against persistent cervical infections with HPV types 16 and 18, plus the pre-cancers caused by those persistent infections.

Myth #5: The HPV vaccine is only for children and young adults.
Fact: Children and adults ages 9 to 45 can now get the HPV vaccine.

Gardasil and Gardasil 9 were originally approved for boys and girls ages 9 to 26. In 2018, the FDA expanded the age range for Gardasil 9 to include men and women ages 27 to 45. This expanded approval provides more opportunity to prevent HPV-related diseases and cancers in a broader age range.

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Although the HPV vaccine is most effective when it is given before someone becomes sexually active — ideally in childhood — there is now data that suggests that the vaccine also can benefit adults. Statistics show that many sexually active adults have been exposed to some types of HPV, but most have not been exposed to all nine types covered by the newest vaccine. Even if an adult already has HPV, the vaccine may still help to reduce the risk of developing HPV-related diseases.

Myth #6: The HPV vaccine isn’t safe.
Fact: Extensive testing and research show that the HPV vaccine is safe.

The FDA closely monitors the safety and effectiveness of all vaccines before and after approval, and research shows that the HPV vaccine is safe. However, like any other vaccine or medication, some people may experience mild reactions or side effects to the HPV vaccine, such as fever, dizziness, fatigue, or pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site.

Myth #7: The HPV vaccine encourages sexual promiscuity.
Fact: Research has shown no link between being vaccinated for HPV and an increase in sexual activity.

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Recent research that included 500,000 individuals found that there was no increase in sexual activity after HPV vaccination. Additionally, the research showed that participants who received the HPV vaccine actually engaged in safer sexual practices than unvaccinated participants.

The bottom line: The HPV vaccine is a safe and effective way to reduce your risk (or your child’s risk) of developing an HPV-related health problem. Parents should ask their child’s pediatrician about the HPV vaccine — ideally before the child becomes sexually active. Adult men should speak with their primary care provider about the HPV vaccine, and adult women should talk with their gynecologist.

About Dr. Linus Chuang

Dr. Linus Chuang is the chair of OB/GYN at Nuvance Health’s Danbury Hospital and Norwalk Hospital. He is a global gynecologic oncology expert and the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s (ASCO) International Affairs Committee Chair. Dr. Chuang has been recognized as an American Cancer Society (ACS) HPV Champion. He is passionate about educating people about the benefits of HPV vaccination and its role in preventing cancer and other HPV-related diseases.

How Healthy is Chicken Noodle Soup?

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You may remember a loved one making you a bowl of chicken noodle soup whenever you were feeling under the weather as a child. Just how healthy is this culinary cure-all?

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“Studies have shown that a hearty bowl of chicken noodle soup may help clear nasal congestion and ease cold symptoms,” says BIDMC clinical dietitian Sandy Allonen, RD. “It’s all about the ingredients.”

So let’s break it down – what’s in your soup?

Broth

If you’re fighting a cold, your doctor will tell you it’s important to stay hydrated. “A clear broth is warm and soothing, making it a great source of hydration while you’re sick, especially if you have a sore throat,” Allonen says.

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Whether it’s vegetable or chicken broth – Allonen says the benefits are similar. “You may think added salt and other seasonings aren’t great for you, but in moderation, these spices can help combat the feeling of dull taste buds,” she says. “A loss of taste is common in a cold, but as with any flavor enhancer, salt is great for getting you to eat more.”

Allonen notes, however, that if your doctor has recommended you limit your sodium intake (whether this be for hypertension, kidney disease, congestive heart failure or another medical condition), then you will want to look for a broth that is low sodium or has no added salt.

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Chicken

Chicken is full of protein that helps support the immune system. It’s also a good source of vitamins and minerals, such as B vitamins, which boost immunity and help regulate digestion.

“Chicken is also high in tryptophan, which helps your body produce serotonin that can enhance your mood and give you the feeling of ‘comfort’ that helps make chicken noodle soup a true comfort food,” Allonen says.

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Noodles

The noodles in chicken noodle soup aren’t just for show. They’re packed with carbohydrates that help you feel full and satisfied.

“Carbs are the preferred source of energy for your body, so getting in a good dose through soup can help you feel less sluggish,” Allonen says.

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Vegetables

All those bits of carrot, celery, and onion commonly found in chicken noodle soup are a great source of vitamins C and K, as well as other antioxidants and minerals. “Not only does this help build a healthy immune system to fight off viruses, it also helps your body recover from illness more quickly,” Allonen says.

Vegetables like carrots are also high in beta-carotene, and can help reduce symptoms due to their anti-inflammatory properties.

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Steam

While steam isn’t an ingredient you’ve mixed in, it’s important to serve your soup warm. Hot steam that comes from your cup of soup can be helpful in reducing nasal congestion.

“Steam can open up airways, making it easier to breathe. It also has a mild anti-inflammatory effect that can help relax your muscles and soothe the discomforts of cold symptoms,” Allonen says.

While soup won’t cure your cold completely, it’s a delicious way to load up on nutrients and increase hydration. Make an appointment with your primary care physician if you’re feeling under the weather this winter.